Next to superb physical fitness, the most essential qualification for an air-gunner was a high degree of intelligence and courage. The training was extremely thorough which had been amply demonstrated by the successful R.A.F attacks on Sylt, and Stavanger aerodrome, not forgetting the German warships off the Norwegian coast. Besides the ordinary mechanical training in accurate firing of the guns, the air-gunners had to be trained to understand fully, and to work, the many complicated instruments which were used in modern aerial warfare. Sitting in the rear cockpit of a Hawker Demon two-seater fighter, this R.A.F. air-gunner is ready for action. His gun is on a mounting which is arranged to shield him when he is firing aft. Clay-pigeon shooting was used by the R.A.F to train air-gunners. Here is an air-gunner, in a mobile power driven shot gun turret, shooting at clay-pigeons which are being flung into the air by the catapult in the above image.