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Chinese weapons, pre and post WW2..

Discussion in 'War in the Pacific' started by brndirt1, Feb 15, 2010.

  1. brndirt1

    brndirt1 Saddle Tramp

    Jul 7, 2008
    Likes Received:
    Chinese weapons, pre and post WW2. I found this list put together by another fellow over on the Axis History Forum, and since it is so full of decent data I figured it should be shared here. This is NOT my work, but his, and I was struck by the diversity and lack of any commonality at all in the weapons. Their AFVs are not discussed but they only got a few light tanks and armored cars in Lend-Lease, they may have received a small number of M4 Shermans late in the war, but not many that is for sure. Anyway here is the man's list (how would you like to be Chiang's Quartermaster?):

    It is a systematic attempt to bring order out of the chaos of Chinese weapons types, imports and manufacture. Many contributed inadvertently to its creation, and I dipped into several dozen sources out of my own library. I will be posting a proper bibliography at a later time, but I would like to thank all the contributors to Axis History Forum and Overwalwagens, where this doc. is already posted (note to all, I have done some more revisions to it since I posted it there).

    I would especially like to mention Nuyt, Xingbake, Sturm 78, Cyril, Ralph Lovett et al. for their invaluable insights and information on Chinese weapons imports. There is still much to be done with this document, especially as I find new weapons to add to it and as I edit it further, and the Siamese section is entirely incomplete and skeletal (I have not even started to write the section on her AFVs yet). Generally the weapons are listed by order of caliber and then date of introduction (small arms are listed in standard metric caliber notation ie: 7.92x57mm Mauser, then by their familiar name if any). Any contributions by others on theis forum are appreciated. Here goes:

    Armaments of China and Siam to 1949

    by Wesley Thomas, Alexandria, VA, USA


    The various weapons listed in this study were used by all types of military formations in China, including Imperial (to 1911), Nationalist, communist, the many and various Warlord (Tu’chun, or local governor) armies (Chiang Tso-Lin in Manchuria; Wu-Pei-fu, based principally in Beijing and Hebei Province; Chiang Tsung chiang [the so-called "Dog Meat General"] in Shandong Province; Yen Hsi-shan, aka. "The Model Governor", in Shansi Province; Long Yun in Yunnan etc…), and the various collaborationist and puppet forces of the Japanese, including most notably the Manchukoan army, the "Reformed Government" and the so-called Nanjing Government armies, to mention just a few. Many of the weapons of the Warlord armies were acquired either by pilfering local government arsenals, via the local manufacture of usually unauthorized copies of foreign designs (ie. the many unauthorized copies of the Mauser C-96 pistol), or from purchases from the many arms merchants plying their trade in China. Japanese trading houses also played a major role in the sale of pistols inside China, and this after Japan had played a major role in convincing the major powers to embargo the export of military rifles to China.
    Equipment types used in China were extremely heterogeneous, and no real effort at standardization was ever made, except that the German 7.92 x 57mm Mauser cartridge became the closest thing to a standardized Chinese rifle and machine gun cartridge, largely due to wide-spread German influence in Chinese military affairs. Despite the extremely varied collection of ordnance to be found in China, certain weapons predominated in importance and quantity, notably the various Mauser type pistols and rifles; the Madsen series of light machine guns; the Brno ZB-26 and ZB-30 light machine guns; the Type 24 Maxim heavy machine gun (after 1935); the unauthorized Chinese copies of the Colt-Browning M-1919 heavy water-cooled machine gun; and almost every major type of Japanese pistol, rifle and machine gun. From late 1941 the United States Lend Lease Program became the primary source of armaments for China, by which the Americans supplied largely surplus or refurbished First World War vintage equipment, notably the Enfield M-1917 rifle (the U.K. P-14, but chambered for the U.S. .30-06 cartridge), and the Browning M-1917A1 water-cooled heavy machine gun; the United States declined to provide weapons deemed too new, too classified, or too essential to the United States’ own war effort, notably the M-1 Garand semi-automatic rifle and the M-1918A2 Browning Automatic Rifle (there are no written or photographic records of either of these weapons in use by Chinese troops).
    Whatever the weapons used, their employment was generally poor or at best mediocre, with very little comprehension of fire control and fire discipline, combined arms techniques, fire and maneuver, or logistics. Leadership in the Nationalist army was, with a few notable exceptions, extremely poor, and the lot of the common Chinese soldier was often execrable, with very little or no training, very little food, virtually no personal hygiene or medical care, poor to non-existent pay, and subject to arbitrary and brutal punishments, including summary execution for the slightest infractions. Corruption in the command structure was endemic, and officers regularly stole the pay and rations of their units for personal gain, keeping phantom or dead soldiers on the rosters to pad their incomes. Competence and leadership in combat were not particularly valued or encouraged in subordinate commanders, lest they challenge the leadership of Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek). In most cases battle was scrupulously avoided, for fear of the possible loss of face or prestige, as well as the possible loss of valuable weapons and equipment (men, however, were expendable in their thousands). As a general rule more energy was expended by the Nationalists in participation in graft and in attempting to quarantine the much feared Communists in Yenan, than in fighting the Japanese invaders.
    The use of artillery in the Chinese army was generally in penny packets, or in ones and twos, and guns were usually hoarded to enhance the power and prestige of a commander, governor or warlord (the last two were often one and the same). The mere presence on the battlefield of a single field gun could decide the outcome of a confrontation without even having to fire a shot. Prior to the arrival of the first United States Lend Lease supplies in October 1941, Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek) insisted that most of China’s artillery inventory (some 800 guns) be hoarded for use as rewards to particularly loyal commanders or governors. Most divisions lacked any artillery at all, and most came to rely on 81mm M-1917 Stokes or M-1927/31 Stokes-Brandt mortars (or local unauthorized copies of the same weapons) for fire support. The types and calibers of China’s artillery were as varied and heterogeneous as her small arms holdings, but was predominantly made up of light mountain and field guns of around 75mm caliber, with a leavening of light field howitzers in the 105mm and 120mm categories. There was very little in the way of medium and heavy artillery, or of dedicated counter-battery long range guns as found in most other major armies. Most gun types were acquired in small quantities; in most cases just a handful of batteries of a particular type of artillery piece were in the inventory, and most of these equipments were hoarded away by commanders in warehouses and depots, rarely, if ever, to be used for their intended purpose. Training of artillery crews was cursory and rudimentary, and there was very little understanding of indirect fire, targeting and observation, fire and maneuver, counter-battery fire, barrage fire or any other artillery technique developed since the end of the muzzle-loading era.
    The Chinese use of armored fighting vehicles prior to 1943 suffered from many of the same problems as that of the artillery, and most of China’s small inventory of AFVs were quickly lost in combat, or were simply allowed to break down due to lack of maintenance and spare parts (by 1938 China had lost 48 of the 96 tanks she had started out with in 1937 due to the above cited reasons). Armor was not used en masse for shock, but in penny packets in an infantry support role exclusively; tank against tank fighting with the Japanese was never contemplated and never attempted. Indeed during the entire Sino-Japanese war from 1937-1945 there was not one single major tank on tank confrontation between Chinese and Japanese armor.

    Pistols and Revolvers:

    7 x 20mm Nambu: Japanese "Baby" Nambu. This diminutive pistol would have been captured in small quantities from captured Japanese officers.

    7.63 x 25mm Mauser: Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" pistol. Sales of Broomhandles to China in large quantities started ca. 1922 when production of this pistol resumed at Oberndorf. Import by China of these weapons was occasioned in large measure by a ban on imports of rifles imposed on China by the Great Powers (in this case Great Britain, France, Japan, Italy, and the United States), with the particular encouragement of the Japanese. Many of the pistols were supplied with detachable stocks to convert them to pistol carbines. Sales continued through the 1930s with the introduction of the Model 1930, which was characterized by its stepped barrel and improved safety.

    7.63 x 25mm Mauser: Mauser Model 712 (Model 1932) "Schnellfeuer" pistol. Sales of this machine pistol started in China in the summer of 1931.

    7.63 x 25mm Mauser: Taku Naval Dockyard copy of the Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" pistol. Approximately 6,000 of these locally made unauthorized copies of the C-96 were made.

    7.63 x 25mm Mauser: Astra Model 900 series (Models 900, 901, 902, and 903) copies of the Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" pistol. 9,050 Model 900, 1,015 Model 901, and 3,635 Model 902 pistols were sold to China by Astra between 1928 and 1931. Several thousand more were doubtless sold to China between 1931 and the start of the Spanish Civil war in 1936.

    7.63 x 25mm Mauser: Beistegui Hermanos MM-31 series copies of the Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" pistol, aka. "Royal", "Azul", and "Super Azul" pistols. The majority of the total production of approximately 33,000 of these pistols were sold to China between ca. 1929 and 1934.

    7.65 x 17mm Browning: FN Browning Model 1900 pistol. The Belgian government adopted this pistol as the Pistolet Modèle 1900 in July 1900, and ordered 20,000 of the pistols during that year from FN in Liège. The Belgian government purchased many more of these pistols until production ended in 1911. The pistol was also exported to the Netherlands and Russia for their militaries prior to 1912. Serbia seems also to have been a customer for this pistol. Belgian police organizations also used these weapons in large quantities, and after 1940, any captured by the Germans were designated "Pistole 620(b)". Many were exported to China (usually via Japan) and were privately purchased and used as personal weapons by Chinese officers and officials. Chinese arsenals made thousands of unauthorized copies of these pistols.

    7.65 x 17mm and 9 x 17mm Browning: FN Model 1910 pistol. Used as a side arm primarily by Belgian officers, the pistol was designated Pistolet Mle. 1910 in Belgian service. The weapons were exported widely, primarily for police use, but some pistols saw military service, notably in China, Denmark, Japan, the Netherlands, Peru, and Sweden. The weapon was also widely copied in Spain. The Germans used large quantities of captured Mle. 1910s as the Pistole 621(b), and any captured Danish or Dutch pistols would have been designated respectively Pistole 621(d) and 621(h). In China, just as with the earlier M-1900, many of these pistols were acquired privately by officers or officials, and many of them were imported via Japanese trading houses. The M-1910 was the pattern for many unauthorized local arsenal and workshop copies.

    7.65 x 17mm and 9 x 17mm Browning: FN Model 1910/22 pistol. This pistol was more successful as a military side arm than the Mle. 1910, and was adopted as a standard side arm in Yugoslavia in 1923. The Yugoslavs purchased 60,000 Model 1910/22s in 9 x 17mm Browning (aka. .380 ACP) between 1923 and 1925, and several thousand more during the 1930s. Belgium bought large quantities of these pistols as the Pistolet mle. 1910/22 for various police formations, some chambered for 7.65 x 17mm, but most were chambered for the 9 x 17mm Browning cartridge. Czechoslovakia (police formations, 9 x 17mm), Denmark (police formations, 7.65 x 17mm), France (police formations, 9 x 17mm), Greece (9 x 17mm), the Netherlands (several thousand Pistool M.1925 no. 1 in 7.65 x 17mm and several tens of thousands of Pistool M.1925 no. 2 in 9 x 17mm), Poland (9 x 17mm), Sweden (police formations, 9 x 17mm), and Turkey (9 x 17mm) also used these pistols. The Germans designated these pistols as Pistole 626(b) for those chambered for 7.65mm and Pistole 641(b) for those in 9 x 17mm Browning. Yugoslav pistols were designated Pistole 641(j), Danish pistols were designated Pistole 626(d), Dutch pistols were designated Pistole 626(h) and 641(h), Greek pistols Pistole 641(g), and Polish pistols were designated Pistole 641(p). As with the earlier M-1900 and M1910 pistols, some quantity of these pistols were imported into China via Japanese trading companies for private purchase by officers and officials.

    7.65 x 17mm Browning: Walther PP and PPK pistols. Introduced respectively in 1928 and 1929, the PP and its smaller brother, the PPK, were acquired privately in some quantity as personal side arms by Chinese officers and officials.

    7.65 x 17mm Browning: Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Plus Ultra "Ruby" type pistol. Based on the "Ruby" style pistols manufactured for France during the First World War, these pistols were manufactured between 1928 and 1933, and were characterized by their 22 round magazines. Some were selective fire, and the weapon was sold almost solely in China.

    7.65 x 17mm: Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Model X pistol. A smaller pistol based on the Colt M-1911, but characterized by a solid back-strap and lack of grip safety. This type of pistol was sold in China from 1935-ca. 1940.

    8 x 21mm Nambu: Various Japanese 8mm Nambu type pistols, including the Type 4 (Model of 1915), and Type 14 (model of 1925). These were captured pistols, and would have appeared in some quantity in the hands of Chinese troops.

    8 x 21mm Nambu: Japanese Type 94 (Model of 1934) pistol. This poorly made and dangerous pistol (there was a long exposed sear bar on the left of the pistol, which could be inadvertently depressed if contacted, thus discharging the weapon) was likely captured in some quantity, but due to its poor design and small magazine capacity (only six rounds), was probably not popular amongst Chinese troops. All in all it should be said that in quality and reliability China had a better collection of small arms than did the Japanese.

    9mm Japanese revolver: Type 26 (Model of 1893) revolver. These revolvers were captured in some quantity from the Japanese.

    9 x 17mm Browning (aka. 9mm "Corto"): Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Model III pistol. This pistol was based on the Colt M-1911, and was characterized by its solid backstrap and lack of a grip safety. The pistols were sold to China from ca. 1935-1940.

    9 x 19mm Parabellum: FN Modèle 1935 (GP-35 or "High-Power") pistol. Belgium adopted this revolutionary semi-auto pistol in 1935 as the Pistolet Mle. 1935, and purchased some 40,000 of the weapons before May 1940. Peru also adopted the High Power in 1935, making it one of the first countries in the world, after Belgium, to adopt this pistol. In addition China purchased 5000 FN made GP-35s before 1940, Estonia (quantity purchased unclear), Finland 1,500, Latvia (quantity unclear), Lithuania 7000, Sweden 1000 (pistols actually delivered; Sweden had ordered more, but the German takeover of Belgium cut short further deliveries), and Romania. The pistol was also ordered by Denmark and the Netherlands before 1940, but they would not enter service in these countries until after the war (in Denmark the pistol was known as the M-1946). The Germans designated the weapon the Pistole 640(b). In February of 1944 the John Inglis Company of Toronto, Canada started to produce the pistol as the No. 1 Mk. 1 and No. 1 Mk. 1* pistol (which had various internal improvements over the Mk. 1) for Chinese Nationalist army contracts, later producing the pistol as well for Canadian and British empire forces. 4000 Mk. 1 pistols were produced, with approximately another 46,000 Mk. 1 *s being produced for China. Many Chinese contract pistols were diverted to Canadian or British forces, so it is doubtful that China received more than 40-45,000 pistols in total. Chinese contract pistols were patterned on the original FN contract pistols, characterized by their tangent rear sights and their stock slots. Most British and Canadian pistols were No. 2 Mk. 1 and No. 2 Mk. 1* models with a fixed rear sight. Inglis produced a grand total of 151,816 High-Powers of all types.

    9 x 19mm Parabellum: Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Model XI pistol (aka. "Modello Especial"). This pistol was also based on the M-1911, but was characterized by its distinctive grip profile, and the lack of a grip safety. Sales of this pistol to China began in ca. 1936 and would have continued until 1939 or 1940.

    9 x 23mm Bergman-Bayard (aka. 9mm "Largo"): Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Model VII pistol. Design based on Colt M-1911, but lacks grip safety and has a solid back-strap. Sales of these pistols to China started around 1932, and continued through ca. 1939-1940, when Franco took over in Spain.

    9 x 23mm Bergman-Bayard (aka. 9mm "Largo"): Gabilondo y Compania ("Llama") Model VIII pistol. Another pistol based on the Colt M-1911, but this time with a grip safety. Introduced in 1939, sales of this pistol to China were likely brief due to the Nationalist takeover in Spain.

    9 x 29mmR: various U.S. made revolvers chambered for the .38 Special cartridge, including the Smith and Wesson Military and Police revolver (including some "Victory Models" after 1942), Colt Army Special revolvers and/or Official Police Models (this last model after 1927), Colt Police Positive Special models , and the Colt Detective Special.

    11.18mm (.44 S & W Russian): Smith and Wesson .44 Russian New Model No. 3 single action revolver. These revolvers were acquired in some quantity by private individuals and by officers of the Imperial Army after 1878.

    11.18mm R (.44 S&W Special), along with other calibers: Colt New Service revolver. Some Chinese officers and civilians privately purchased Colt New Service revolvers of differing versions.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): Shansi Arsenal copy of Mauser C-96 "Broomhandle" pistol in .45 ACP. Approximately 8,000 of these unauthorized copies of the Mauser C-96 pistol were made at the Shansi Arsenal in 1929.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): Smith and Wesson and Colt M-1917 revolvers. The U.S. Lend Lease program provided a substantial quantity of these revolvers to the Chinese after 1942.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): Colt M-1911A1 pistol. Large quantities of these pistols were provided by the U.S. Lend Lease Program.

    Submachine guns:

    9 x 19mm Parabellum: Bergmann MP-18I sub-machine gun. China acquired an unknown quantity of these SMGs during the 1920s, likely from SIG Neuhausen in Switzerland. MP-18I and MP-28II series weapons were also employed by Belgium, Bolivia, Cuba, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay (captured from Bolivians), Venezuela, Spain (Civil War), and Japan.

    9 x 19mm Parabellum or 11.43 x23mm (.45 ACP)?: Bergmann MP-28II sub-machine gun. These weapons may have been of FN origin, designated Mitraillette Mle. 1934 by FN. China also acquired some improved MP-18Is from SIG in Switzerland as well. MP-18 and MP-28 series weapons were also employed by Argentina, Cuba, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay (captured from Bolivians), Venezuela, Spain (Civil War), and Japan.

    9 x 19mm Parabellum: Sten Mk. II submachine gun. These submachine guns were provided by Britain to Chinese forces based in India.

    9 x 19mm Parabellum: Type 37 (Model of 1948) submachine gun: Chinese copy of the U.S. M-3A1 "Greasegun" submachine gun, but chambered for the 9 x 19mm Parabellum caliber.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): M-1921 Thompson submachine gun: A relatively small quantity of these Colt manufactured SMGs were imported into China during the 1920s and 1930s. Original Colt M-1921 Thompson guns were never very common amongst Chinese troops. However, a substantial number of unauthorized copies of this weapon were made in various Chinese arsenals. One example was listed by Colt as having been imported into Shanghai ca. 1922, but it is likely that many of the guns whose destination is left blank on company invoices were in fact destined for China.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): U.S. M-1928A1, M-1 and M-1A1 Thompson submachine guns. The United States provided large numbers of Thompson SMGs as Lend Lease from late 1941 or early 1942.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): U.S. M-3A1 "Greasegun" submachine guns. M-3A1 SMGs figured in Lend Lease shipments to China after ca. 1943.

    11.43 x 23mm (.45 ACP): Type 36 (Model of 1947) submachine gun. Chinese copy of the U.S. M-3A1 "Greasegun" submachine gun.


    14.65mm (appr.) (.577 caliber): Pattern 1853 or 1857 Enfield rifle muskets.

    14.65mm (appr.) (.577 caliber): various surplus Snider conversions of the Pattern 1853, 1857, 1860 Sergeant’s Pattern etc… Enfield rifle muskets, carbines, musketoons, and short rifles. Many surplus British Snider conversions ended up in China after adoption in Britain of the Martini-Henry in 1875. Many other Snider conversions were sold off to Japan (M-1877 Snider conversions were supplied by the Japanese to some Chinese collaborationist units), and Portugal, and also served for many years in British India, long after they were obsolete.

    11mm combustible: M-1866 Chassepot rifles, musketoons and carbines. Surplus French rifles acquired during the 1880s?

    11 x 60mm: Mauser M-1871 rifle. China ordered 26,000 of these rifles in 1876. Additional surplus Imperial German Army rifles were purchased circa 1906.

    11 x 60mm: Mauser M-1871 carbine. Small quantities of these carbines were acquired in 1876. An additional 1000 surplus Imperial German Army carbines were acquired in 1906.

    11 x 60mmR: Japanese Type 13 (Model of 1880) and Type 18 (model of 1885) Murata rifles. These were single shot bolt rifles, the Type 18 being a slight improvement over the earlier Type 13. Some of these rifles were supplied by the Japanese to rear echelon formations in various collaborationist forces.

    11 x 59mmR Gras: M-1874 Gras single shot bolt action rifle. Surplus French army weapons acquired during the 1880s or early 1890s.

    11 x 58mmR Spanish: M-1882 Remington-Lee bolt-action rifle and carbine. Between 8000 and 10,000 of these rifles and carbines were acquired from Remington in 1884 and 1885.

    8 x 50mmR: M-1888 Mannlicher rifle. This was one of the first straight-pull Mannlichers, and was used not only by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but was also exported to Bulgaria, Chile, Greece, Siam and apparently, China. These rifles were supplied by Steyr (Österreichische Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft), likely during the early 1890s.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1888 (Gew. 88) "Kommissions Gewehr": China acquired substantial quantities of these rifles from Ludwig Loewe and Steyr (Österreichische Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft) starting in 1894 to arm her troops during the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. China acquired additional surplus Gew. 88s in 1907.

    8 x 53mmR: Japanese Type 22 (Model of 1889) Murata rifle. Some of these rifles were supplied to collaborationist Chinese troops (notably in Manchukuo) by the Japanese.

    7 x 57mm Mauser: M-1895 Mauser rifle. This weapon was based on the Chilean M-1895 rifle. China acquired an unknown quantity of these rifles after 1896 from Waffenfabrik Mauser in Oberndorf.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1904 Mannlicher rifle. Steyr (Österreichische Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft) sold these rifles to China in large quantities from 1904. These were turn-bolt rifles, not straight-pull weapons as with earlier Mannlichers, and were largely based on the design of the Romanian M-1893 and the Dutch M-1895 rifles.

    7 x 57mm Mauser: M-1906 Mauser trials rifle. This was an M-1904 Mauser variant chambered for the 7mm Mauser cartridge. China acquired small quantities of these rifles for field tests. This weapon was subsequently adopted as the M-1907 rifle in the new 6.8mm cartridge.

    6.8 x 57mm: M-1907 Mannlicher-Shönauer rifle. This was an experimental rifle acquired in some numbers for trials in 1907 against a Mauser and a Haenel entry. The Mauser won, but some remaining Mannlicher-Shönauers were later used in the fighting of the 1920s and 1930s. Some may have been re-chambered for the standard 7.92 x 57mm during the ‘teens or twenties. The 6.8mm cartridge was a variant of the 7 x 57mm Mauser.

    6.8 x 57mm: M-1907 Mauser rifle. This was the winner of the competition with the Mannlicher-Shönauer. This rifle was based upon the commercial M-1904 version of the Gew. 98 (rifles were exported to Brazil as the M-1907, Chile as the M-1904, and Costa Rica and Venezuela as the M-1910), several thousand examples were bought from both DWM and Mauser until the revolution of 1911 interrupted deliveries. Enough undelivered rifles remained in 1914 to arm two Imperial German Army regiments, being re-chambered in the meantime to use the standard German 7.92 x 57mm cartridge. Chinese arsenals (one was apparently the Mukden Arsenal under Japanese control) subsequently made unlicensed copies of the rifles from the early 1920s. Many of the Chinese rifles were later re-chambered for the standard 7.92 x 57mm Mauser cartridge.

    6.8 x 57mm: M-1907 Mauser carbine. This was characterized by a turned down bolt handle and a full stock to the muzzle. This weapon was also later re-chambered to use the standard 7.92 x 57mm cartridge.

    7 x 57mm Mauser: M-1912 Mauser rifle. An unknown, but likely small quantity (a few thousand?), of these rifles were purchased between ca. 1912-1914 from Steyr (Österreichische Waffenfabriks-Gesellschaft). This rifle was identical to rifles sold by Steyr to Chile, Colombia and Mexico.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Hanyang Arsenal rifle. The Chinese loosely copied the Gewehr 88 "Kommissions Gewehr", borrowing some influences from the Mannlicher M-1904 rifle, from ca. 1916 (the oft reported designation of Type 88 is apparently erroneous, as it has no bearing on the actual production dates) in fairly large, but unknown quantities, and was one of the most common rifles in China prior to 1935.

    7.62 x 54mmR: various Mosin-Nagant rifles and carbines. An unknown quantity of Russian Mosin-Nagant M-1891 rifles, M-1891 Dragoon rifles, and M-1907 (aka. "M-1910") carbines were used by various warlord armies during the 1920s, as well as by White Russian mercenaries employed by them.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) vz. 98/22 rifle. China purchased around 70,000 vz. 98/22s from ca. 1923-1930.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) ZH-29 semi-automatic rifle. This advanced rifle was designed by Emanuel Holek ca. 1927-1928, allegedly to meet a Chinese requirement for a semi-auto rifle. China acquired 150 of the rifles in 1929, and several hundred more were purchased through 1932, for a total of between 500 and 600 of these very well made rifles. This rifle was also exported in small quantities to Siam and Ethiopia, and was tested in 1932 by both Romania and Turkey. Several undisclosed South American countries tested the weapon as well. From photographic evidence it seems that Manchurian (later "Manchukouan") units received a number of these weapons.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: FN M-1924 and M-1930 Mauser short rifles. Between 1930 and 1934 China purchased 24,000 M-1924 and M-1930 short rifles, and then another 165,000 M-1930 short rifles between 1937 and 1939.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Type 21 (Model of 1932) Mauser short rifle. This was a copy of the FN M-1930 short rifle, made at the Guangdong arsenal between 1932 and 1937. The quality of manufacture was considered poor by comparison with its FN counterpart. It is unclear how many of these rifles were made.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Mukden Arsenal Mauser rifle. The Japanese controlled puppet government of Manchuria ("Manchukuo") manufactured these rifles at the Mukden Arsenal under Japanese supervision between 1933 and 1939. The weapon incorporated various features from both the Arisaka and Mauser 98 series rifles (ie. the sliding bolt cover and ovoid bolt knob as on the Arisaka, with the rifle itself resembling the Steyr produced M-1912 Mauser rifle). Many captured rifles of this type saw service with the Nationalists.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) vz. 24 Mauser short rifle. The Chinese government purchased 100,000 vz. 24 rifles in 1937 from Brno. One Chinese arsenal made a close copy of the vz. 24, which incorporated a cannibalized Japanese Type 44 carbine folding bayonet.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1933 Mauser "Standard Modell" short rifle. China acquired unknown quantities of "Standard Modell" short rifles between 1935 and 1937 from Mauser in Oberndorf. This weapon served as the model for the locally made "Jiang Jieshi" (aka. Chiang Kai-Shek) rifle.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1933 Mauser "Standard Modell" carbine. These were supplied in some numbers along with the short rifles.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: "Jiang Jieshi" (aka. Chiang Kai-Shek) short rifle. This Chinese arsenal direct copy of the "Standard Modell" Mauser was made by the millions between 1936 and 1949, and would become the most common rifle in Chinese service. Many of these weapons would later see service in Korea. Their general quality of manufacture ranged from very good to execrable, but never approached that of the German original.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: various surplus German Mauser rifles and carbines. There is some photographic evidence that China took delivery of what look to be former Imperial German army Mauser rifles and carbines during the 1920s and 1930s, including Gewehr 98 rifles and Kar. 98AZ carbines. These weapons may have been acquired from both Belgium and Czechoslovakia, and possibly Poland as well, as they all possessed large stocks of surplus Mauser rifles ceded by Germany as war reparations after 1919.

    6.5 x 50mmSR Arisaka: various Japanese Arisaka rifles and carbines. Various Japanese Arisaka rifles were captured in some quantity during the Sino-Japanese War between 1931 and 1945, and even more were acquired from surrendered stocks after Japan’s surrender in 1945. Japan also supplied a substantial quantity of Arisakas to various Warlord armies (ie. that of Chiang Tso-Lin) in Manchuria during the 1920s. The most common models were the Type 38 rifle, the Type 38 carbine and the Type 44 carbine, which was characterized by its folding bayonet. Some earlier Type 30 (Model of 1897) and Type 35 (Model of 1902) rifles and carbines may have been provided to Chinese collaborationist forces by the Japanese.

    7.7 x 58mm Type 99 Arisaka: Type 99 Arisaka rifle and short rifle. These were from captured stocks of Japanese rifles. Many of these rifles were re-chambered to take the standard 7.92 x 57mm Mauser cartridge after 1946.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British): No. 4 Mk. I* Lee-Enfield rifle. From 1942 the United States provided China some 40,000 No. 4 Mk. I* Lee-Enfield rifles manufactured by the Stevens-Savage Arms Company in Massachusetts.

    7.62 x 33mm: U.S. M-1 carbine. The United States Lend Lease program provided the Nationalist army with a fairly large number of carbines after 1942.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. M-1903 and M-1903A3 Springfield rifles. The United States Lend Lease program provided China substantial quantities of M-1903 series rifles from 1942 (mostly M-1903A3s).

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. M-1917 Enfield rifle. The United States Lend Lease program provided the Nationalist army with extremely large quantities of M-1917 rifles from late 1941 or early 1942; these weapons vastly outnumbered the Springfield in Chinese service.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): Johnson M-1941 semi-automatic rifle. Apparently China took delivery of a relatively small quantity (several hundred?) of Johnson semi-auto rifles during the Second World War (after 1942). These may have been ex-Dutch contract rifles diverted to the Chinese after the fall of the Dutch East Indies.

    Machine guns:

    11 x 60mm Mauser or 11 x 58mm Spanish?: Gatling rotary machinegun, unknown model. China is known to have acquired a number of Gatling guns at various times from the mid 1870s through the 1880s. One at the Beijing Military Museum seems to be of mid-1870s pattern (a Model 1876?) in an unknown caliber. It is possible that China acquired some Model 1883 Gatlings with the Accles feed as well.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British): Maxim-Nordenfeldt Maxim Model 1889 "World Standard" machine gun. China acquired 151 of these early Maxim guns via Jardine and Matheson in Hong Kong between 1892 and 1895. Later, China acquired five examples of the Vickers Maxim Model of 1901 between 1903 and 1906, as well as one example of the Vickers Maxim M-1906 "New Light" commercial gun.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: DWM Maxim M-1909 commercial heavy machine gun. China is known to have acquired sixteen of these Maxim guns in the first half of 1914, but exports by DWM to China seem to have started sometime in 1912, which would mean that China may have acquired several dozen prior to 1914.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Bergmann M-1910 heavy machine gun. China ordered around twenty or so of these weapons for trials against the Maxim. It is known that China acquired six of these guns in 1911.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Skoda M-1909 heavy machine gun. China ordered fifty of these water-cooled heavy machineguns in 1910, but only about twenty were actually delivered before the 1911 revolution intervened. The remainder served aboard Austro-Hungarian armored trains during the First World War.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1916, M-1930 and M-1937 Madsen light machineguns. The Madsen was one of the more common light machineguns employed by the Nationalist and various warlord armies. The differences between the various "models" of Madsen guns was usually none to negligible, and usually simply represented the dates the guns were ordered and manufactured more than any significant design or detail change. However, there seems to have been a change during the mid to late 1920s in the design of the flash hider/muzzle booster assembly, and the form of the stock (a pronounced angle in the butt stock seems to have characterized weapons made after ca. 1923-1924).

    8 x 50mmR or 7.92 x 57mm Mauser?: Hotchkiss M-1914 heavy machinegun. France provided China an unknown quantity of these machineguns from ca. 1920. Some were mounted on Chinese Renault FT-18 light tanks.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Colt-Browning M-1919 heavy machine gun. China made an unauthorized copy of the Colt Commercial M-1919 heavy machinegun from 1921, which was essentially identical to the U.S. .30 caliber Browning M-1917 machine gun. The weapons were manufactured at various Chinese arsenals, including the Hanyang and Shanghai arsenals, and were of inferior quality to the original pattern due to being reverse engineered from a sample stolen from a Colt representative in 1920. Several thousand of these weapons were manufactured; for example 144 were made in March 1931; 514 in 1940; and in 1945 alone 1,737 guns were made, most at the Hanyang arsenal.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: M-1922 or M-1926 Hotchkiss light machinegun. It has been reported that China acquired an undisclosed quantity of these LMGs from France during the 1920s.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Fürrer M-1925 light machinegun. China is reported in some sources to have purchased a small quantity of this Swiss LMG during the mid-1920s. The gun was characterized by its side swinging toggle action, similar to that of the Luger (Parabellum) pistol.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British)? : Lewis light machine gun. China acquired an unknown quantity of British surplus Lewis LMGs during the 1920s and 1930s for use by various warlord and paramilitary units, including most notably the Shanghai Volunteer Corps. It is very likely that a quantity of Imperial Japanese Navy Type 92 Lewis Guns were captured from Japanese naval infantry; some Type 92 aircraft guns were also likely captured. It is also likely some Japanese Army Type 89 (Model of 1929) Lewis aircraft guns were employed as ground guns.

    7.92x57mm Mauser: M-1926 Breda-SAFAT light machinegun. This was a development of the M-1914 Fiat-Revelli, and is reported to have been used in China’s CV-33 tankettes.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) vz. 26 light machine gun. China acquired several thousand examples of the ZB vz. 26 from 1927, and it along with the improved vz. 30, would become the most common LMG in Chinese service by the mid-1930s.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) vz. 30 light machine gun. China supplemented its vz. 26 LMGs with large quantities of vz. 30s from the early 1930s. The vz. 30 differed from the earlier vz. 26, in that the barrel locking nut and the bolt were redesigned, the gas piston was strengthened, and a gas regulator was fitted. These changes were largely internal, and the two models are therefore difficult to tell apart.

    7.62 x 54mmR: Degtyarev DP M-1928 light machine gun, DT armor machine gun, and DA aircraft gun. The Soviet Union provided an unknown quantity of these LMGs to the Nationalists during the early to mid-1930s. DT armor machine guns were provided along with the T-26 light tanks, and the various armored cars supplied to China.

    7.62 x 54mmR: Maxim PV-1 aircraft gun. This was a lighter, air-cooled aircraft version of the Soviet M-1910 Maxim gun, and was used on Soviet aircraft from 1926. They would have been found on most Soviet aircraft supplied to China.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British) and 7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Vickers Class "C" heavy machine gun. China acquired 32 of these water-cooled HMGs from Vickers between 1929 and 1934, 16 of them in 7.92mm. Some Japanese Class "C" guns (including a very small number of the later Japanese Type 98 copy) may also have been captured between 1931 and 1945.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British) and 7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Vickers Class "E" and "F" aircraft machine gun. China acquired 70 Class "E" aircraft guns between 1929 and 1933, seven of which were supplied in 7.92mm. China acquired an additional nine Class "F" flexible aircraft guns, one in 7.92mm, during the same period. Some Japanese Navy and Army Class "E" aircraft guns, as well as Army Type 89 (Model of 1929), and Imperial Japanese Navy Type 97 (Model of 1937) aircraft guns (both copies of the Class "E") were likely captured as well.

    7.92 x 54mm Mauser: Vickers Class "C/T" tank machine gun. China acquired 37 of these armor machineguns to arm the 29 Carden-Loyd M-1931 and four Carden-Loyd M-1936 light tanks supplied in 1935 and 1936.

    8x59mm Breda: M-1914/35 Fiat-Revelli machine gun. This was the M-1914 Fiat-Revelli heavy machinegun converted to belt feed and air-cooling. These weapons have been reported to have been mounted in China’s CV-33 tankettes.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: FN Modèle 1930 BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle). China purchased 4,148 Mle. 1930 BARs from FN between June 1933 and December 1935. These weapons seem to have been delivered concurrent with deliveries of the later Modèle D BAR cited below.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: FN Modèle D BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle). It has been reported in some sources that China took delivery of around 2,000 Mle. D BARs during the mid to late 1930s. Another report on machinegun deliveries from FN to China states that 3,022 BARs of an unspecified model were reportedly sold to China between July 1934 and June 1936, a period which overlaps with the period of Mle. 1930 deliveries cited above. It is entirely possible that many, if not all, of these 3,022 BARs were in fact Modèle D’s, a quantity of weapons above and beyond the some 4,150 Mle. 1930s cited above, as the production run of the Modèle D started in 1932 and continued through May 1940 with the fall of Belgium.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Model 1926 Lahti Saloranta light machine gun. Finland delivered China 1,200 of these LMGs in 1937. China had originally placed an order for 30,000 of the guns, but the order was cut short after the Japanese put pressure on the Finnish government to cease deliveries of the guns. China was the only export customer for this weapon.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: SIG Neuhausen KE-7 light machine gun. China purchased an undetermined quantity- one report states that "several thousand" KE-7s were delivered- of this commercial light machinegun designed by Pal Kiraly from Switzerland during the mid-1930s.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06) and 7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Colt-Browning MG-40 aircraft machine gun. This weapon was the Colt commercial version of the U.S. .30-06 (7.62 x 63mm) M-2 aircraft gun. China acquired hundreds of these weapons between 1930 and 1940, usually via the aircraft companies that mounted the weapons on the aircraft they sold to China. The machineguns were sold to China in both .30 caliber and in 7.92mm. Specifically the Curtiss-Wright aircraft company sold China 105 MG-40 aircraft guns in .30 caliber between February and March 1934, with one additional gun delivered in May 1935. Possible, but unconfirmed, additional Curtiss deliveries of MG-40s to China were as follows: one in July 1930; two in May 1932 plus eight additional in November of the same year; 24 guns in March 1933; one in July of 1933; 44 guns in August 1934; three more in September 1934; 30 in 1935; 188 in 1936; and 12 in 1937. Curtiss is known to have delivered 10 guns in 7.92mm in 1938, with 7 more in 1939 and 424 in 1940, all in 7.92mm. Boeing delivered 24 .30 caliber guns between July 1934 and May 1935, and Douglas delivered 75 .30 caliber MG-40s between April 1934 and June 1934. North American Aviation delivered 77 .30 caliber MG-40s in 1938, and Ryan Aeronautical delivered two in 7.92mm in 1940.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06) or 7.92 x 57mm Mauser?: Colt-Browning MG-38T tank machinegun. This was likely the machinegun which was used on China’s Marmon-Herrington CTLS series light tanks.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: FN Browning Modèle 1932 aircraft machine gun. Records at FN state that China purchased 410 Mle. 1932 aircraft guns between 1935 and 1936, and then acquired another 201 guns between 1937 and 1938. Another report states that between July 1934 and June 1936, China took delivery of a total of 1285 FN Mle. 1932 aircraft machineguns, which may mean that between 1934 and the middle of 1935 alone China took delivery of 875 FN Mle. 1932 aircraft guns.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: MG-13 light machine gun. These were acquired along with the small number of PzKpfw I light tanks and the Sd. Kfz. 221 and Sd. Kfz. 222 armored cars exported to China by Germany in 1936; the total delivered probably did not exceed 100 guns.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Japanese Army Type 98 (Model of 1938), and Navy Type 1 (Model of 1941) aircraft machine guns. These were Japanese copies of the German MG-15 (Solothurn Model T-6-220) flexible aircraft machine gun; some were likely captured by the Chinese and put to use against their former owners.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Type 24 (Model of 1935) Maxim heavy machine gun. In 1935 the German military advisory commission, which worked in China from 1932 to 1938, set up a Maxim gun production line at Arsenal 21with the help of some former DWM technicians. The Type 24 Maxim gun was largely based on the earlier DWM Maxim M-1909 commercial gun. Some 36,032 of these machineguns were built between 1935 and the summer of 1937, when Japan invaded the rest of China. The weapon would become one of the most common automatic weapons in Chinese service prior to 1950. A relatively small quantity of these guns were manufactured as air cooled weapons instead of being made in the more usual water cooled configuration.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) Model 53 (vz. 37) heavy machine gun. China acquired an undetermined quantity of these heavy machineguns from Brno between ca. 1936 and 1939.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Colt-Browning MG-38 heavy machine gun. China first acquired one of these weapons in March 1935 via the Hong Kong Sporting Arms store, with an additional six acquired directly from Colt in 1938, and another 200 guns from Colt in 1939. The MG-38 was a commercial Colt manufactured water-cooled machinegun essentially identical to the U.S. .30 caliber Browning M-1917 machine gun. Colt made several variations of these machineguns during the inter-war period including the M-1919, M-1924, M-1928 and the MG-38 (if equipped with a pistol grip as on the M-1917) and MG-38B (equipped with spade grips). They all differed from the M-1917 essentially in having several minor internal modifications. The MG-38 models had improved bolt handles.

    6.5 x 50mmSR Arisaka: Various Japanese 6.5mm machine guns including: M-1897 Hotchkiss heavy machinegun; Type 3 (Model of 1914) heavy machinegun; Type 11 (Model of 1922) light machine gun; Type 91 (Model of 1931) armor machine gun; Type 96 (Model of 1936) light machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese during the period 1931 to 1945.

    7.7 x 58mmSR Type 92: various Japanese 7.7mm machine guns including: Type 92 (Model 1932) heavy machine gun (a modified Type 3 HMG, which could also chamber the later rimless Type 99 Arisaka cartridge); Type 97 (Model of 1937) armor machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese, or acquired from stocks of abandoned Japanese weapons after Japan’s surrender in September 1945.

    7.7 x 58mm Type 99 Arisaka: various Japanese machine guns including: Type 99 (Model of 1939) light machine gun; Type 1 (Model of 1941) heavy machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese; however the Type 1, a substantially modified Type 92, was likely very uncommon in comparison with the more numerous Type 92 HMG.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1917A1 heavy machine gun. The United States supplied 3,363 M-1917A1s to China between late 1941 or early 1942 and 1949.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1919A4 medium machinegun, and M-1919A6 light machine gun. The United States supplied 1218 M-1919A4 and M-1919A6 Browning machineguns to China after 1942.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1919A5 armor machine gun. The United States supplied 1,640 M-1919A5s from 1943, ostensibly to equip China’s M-3A3 light tanks; however since China never had more than a few dozen M-3A3 light tanks it is likely that many of these weapons were employed as ground guns.

    7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-2 aircraft machine gun. The United States supplied China 5,098 M-2 aircraft guns after 1941.

    7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British): Bren Mk. IM, Mk. II/I, and Mk. II light machineguns. The Chinese army in India and Burma seems to have received a substantial quantity of standard British Commonwealth .303 Bren guns, primarily of the Mk. IM, and the Mk. II/I (a transitional model, using parts from both the Mk. I and Mk. II Bren guns); but, by far the most commonly used Bren by Chinese forces was the Mk. II. The weapons seem to have been made primarily by the John Inglis Company in Toronto, Canada.

    7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Bren Mk. II light machine gun. The John Inglis company in Canada made 39,300 of these guns for the Nationalists in the standard Chinese 7.92mm caliber between January 1944 and the middle of 1945. These weapons would supplement the earlier .303 Brens supplied to the Chinese forces in the India/Burma theater. It would subsequently become the standard Chinese squad automatic weapon on the northern Burma front.

    .577/.450 (.45 M.H.) Martini Henry: Maxim-Nordenfeldt Model 1887 Maxim "World Standard" machine gun. China acquired ten of these guns along with the above cited .303 Maxims in 1895 from H.M. Schultz in Shanghai.

    12.7 x 81mm (.50 caliber Vickers): Vickers water-cooled heavy machine gun. These were possibly identical to the British Mk. III Naval Pattern introduced into Royal Navy service in July 1932. China acquired 19 of these weapons in 1931 and 1932 for use by its Maritime Customs service.

    12.7 x 99mm (.50 caliber): U.S. Browning M-2 HB heavy machine gun. The United States provided China with 501 M-2 HBs from late 1941 or early 1942. China also received a quantity of water-cooled .50 caliber M-2 heavy machineguns for anti-aircraft use.

    12.7 x 99mm (.50 caliber): U.S. Browning M-2 fixed and flexible aircraft machine gun. The United States provided China with 460 .50 cal M-2 aircraft guns from 1941.

    12.7 x 120mmSR (.50 caliber Vickers): Vickers Class "D" High Velocity heavy machine gun. China acquired twenty of these guns as anti-aircraft weapons in 1932 via Jardine-Matheson in Hong Kong. Siam acquired 24 of the guns as well, and Japan acquired the balance of 56.

    13.2 x 99mm: M-1930 Hotchkiss heavy machinegun. An undisclosed quantity of this weapon has been reported to have been purchased by China from France during the 1930s. There are photos of this weapon in use in China dating from 1937 or 1938. It is also possible that some of the pictured weapons were actually Japanese Type 93 (Model of 1933) copies of the same weapon. Japanese Type 93s were captured from the Japanese by the Chinese in relatively small quantities. The 13.2mm M-1930 HMG was used to arm some of China’s Renault AMR ZB light tanks.


    50mm: Japanese Type 10 (Model of 1921) grenade launcher. This light mortar was a standard Japanese infantry support weapon, and was captured in some quantity by the Chinese.

    50mm: Japanese Type 89 (Model of 1929) grenade launcher. This was essentially a modified Type 10 grenade launcher, which was characterized by a moveable firing pin and a rifled barrel, which provided a substantial increase in range over its predecessor. This weapon was captured in some quantity from the Japanese.

    60mm: Stokes-Brandt M-1935 mortar. China seems to have purchased a quantity of these weapons from France ca. 1938-1940. It was copied in China as the Type 31 (Model of 1942), and was characterized by its longer barrel than the French original.

    60mm: U.S. M-2 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied large numbers of these mortars from 1942.

    70mm: Japanese Type 11 (Model of 1922) mortar. This mortar was the standard Japanese infantry support mortar prior to the adoption of the 81mm Stokes pattern during the late 1920s, and was captured in some quantity by the Chinese. Copies of these mortars were manufactured at various Chinese arsenals.

    81mm: M-1917 ("3 inch" Mk. I -which see below) Stokes mortar. These weapons were provided to China during the 1920s, likely by Great Britain or France.

    81mm: Stokes-Brandt Mle.1927/31 mortar. This weapon was acquired from the early 1930s from France. The Japanese direct copy of this weapon, the Type 3 (Model of 1928), was also captured in some quantity from the Japanese. There is an indication in one source that the Chinese designated the Stokes-Brandt Mle. 1927/1931 the "Type 20" (model of 1931).

    81mm: 8cm sGrW-34 mortar. It has been reported in a Chinese source that the Germans supplied China with an undisclosed quantity of these mortars ca. 1936-1938. The sGrW-34 was a German development of the Stokes-Brandt Mle.1927/31 81mm mortar. These weapons were distinguished by the heavy machined reinforce at the muzzle (the original French weapon had an un-reinforced muzzle), their distinctive forged aluminum elevation and cross leveling knobs instead of the foldable cranks of the original, the form of the barrel yoke on the mount, and the form of the base-plate.

    81mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This was the standard Japanese infantry mortar from the late 1930s until 1945, and large quantities were captured by the Chinese. It was a further development of the Type 3 (Model of 1928) 81mm mortar, which was a Japanese direct copy of the Brandt Mle. 1927/31.

    81mm: Japanese Type 99 (Model of 1939) mortar. This was a lighter and shorter version of the earlier Type 97, with a barrel about half as long as that of the earlier weapon and a much lighter and shorter bipod. This weapon supplemented the Type 97 in Japanese service, and large quantities were captured and used by the Chinese.

    81mm: U.S. M-1 81mm mortar. This was the U.S. version of the Stokes-Brandt M-1927/31 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program provided a substantial quantity of these weapons to the Chinese from late 1941.

    81mm: British "3 inch" Mk. I, Mk. IA, Mk. II, Mk. IV, and Mk.V mortars on Mounts Mk. III and Mk. V. These weapons differed in the design of their tubes, particularly in the design of their breech pieces and strikers, with the Mk. V model being capable of firing captured Axis bombs. The Mk. II and Mk. V weapons were the most common variants in Burma (the Mk. V was a lightened version allegedly designed for use by British troops in the Far East). According to one Chinese source Britain supplied an unknown quantity of Canadian made "3 inch" mortars to the Chinese forces in the India/Burma Theater.

    82mm: Soviet PM-36 (M-1936) and/or PM-37 (M-1937) mortars. The Soviet Union supplied the Nationalists with an unknown quantity of 82mm PM-36/PM-37 mortars ca. 1938-1939 as part of their aid program. These weapons were essentially Soviet copies of the French 81mm Stokes-Brandt Mle.1927/31 mortar. The PM-37 had a distinctive round base plate instead of the more conventional rectangular one of the PM-36.

    90mm: Japanese Type 94 (Model of 1934) mortar. This was the standard heavy mortar of the Japanese artillery, and was usually used in a static role or as a barrage weapon. It was characterized by heavy twin recoil cylinders in a "u"-shaped frame and its reinforced breech piece. It is unlikely that many of these weapons were captured and then employed against their former owners, as they were extremely heavy and unwieldy.

    90mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This replaced the earlier Type 94 in service, and was built on the Stokes pattern; however, it retained the heavier base plate and the bipod of the earlier weapon. Captured examples of this mortar were more commonly employed by Chinese troops as it was easier to break down and transport than its predecessor.

    107mm: U.S. 4.2 inch M-2 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied China a quantity of these mortars after 1942.

    150mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This extremely large Stokes pattern mortar was not employed by the Japanese in large quantities, therefore its capture and subsequent use by the Chinese is doubtful. However, the Chinese manufactured a very rough copy of this weapon, capable of firing captured Japanese 150mm mortar ammunition. The barrel was characterized by having extremely thick walls, as the metallurgy was not up to contemporary standards.

    152mm: 6 inch Newton mortar. A number of these weapons, possibly surplus British weapons, seem to have been used in China during the 1920s by some of the warlord armies. They seem to have been mounted on locally produced local carriages. They would have been among the heaviest artillery weapons in China at that time.

    Anti-Tank Weapons:

    20 x 125mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) anti-tank rifle. This weapon, which used a system largely based on that of the Hispano-Suiza HS-404 20mm cannon, was a large and extremely heavy (over 105 pounds with a shield) semi-automatic cannon. Some of these weapons were likely captured by the Chinese and turned against their former owners.

    37mm: 3.7cm PaK 35/36 anti-tank gun. 124 of these weapons are reported to have been supplied to China during the time of the German advisory group between 1936 and 1938. Originally designed in 1925 by Rheinmetall, the weapon entered service with the Reichswehr in 1928 as the 3.7cm TaK, and was characterized by its wooden artillery wheels. Weapons manufactured from 1934 received disk wheels with pneumatics, and the gun received its final designation of PaK 35/36 in 1936. This weapon was widely exported during the inter-war period, notably to Czechoslovakia (for tests?), Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy (Cannone contracarro da 37/45)- made under license at Breda, Japan (Type 97 [Model of 1937]), Mexico (Breda guns from Italy), the Netherlands, the Soviet Union (Model 1930), Spain, and Turkey (with an L/50 barrel). The Soviets are reported to have provided China with a small quantity of their own M-1930 37mm AT gun during the 1930s. It has been reported in "Early 1900’s Chinese Ammunition Manufacture" that direct copies of these guns were made in China at an undisclosed arsenal with an L/50 caliber ordnance.

    37mm: U.S. M-3A1 anti-tank gun. The U.S Lend Lease program supplied China some of these weapons after 1942.

    37mm: Japanese Type 94 (Model of 1934) infantry/anti-tank gun. Examples of this weapon were captured from the Japanese, and were used frequently for direct support of infantry as well as an anti-tank gun.

    45mm: Soviet M-1932 anti-tank gun. These anti-tank guns were based upon the design of the German Rheinmetall PaK 35/36, but were chambered for the larger and more powerful Soviet 45mm round. The Soviets provided China an unknown quantity of these weapons during the 1930s.

    47mm: 4.7cm Böhler M-1935 anti-tank gun. China received a few of these weapons from Böhler’s Italian licensee, Breda, during the late 1930s. The Böhler gun was used by several countries, including Austria (K.n. 36), Finland (12 guns from Breda), Italy (Cannone da 47/32 Modello 1935), Lithuania, the Netherlands (Kanon van 4.7), Romania (165 guns from Breda between 1939 and 1942), the Soviet Union (ex-Lithuanian guns?), Spain (Breda guns), Switzerland, and Yugoslavia (44 ex-Spanish pieces).

    47mm: Japanese Type 1 (Model of 1941) anti-tank gun. Small numbers of these weapons were captured from the Japanese late in the war.
    SASH155 Member Posts: 139 Joined: 29 Sep 2007, 01:25 Location: Alexandria, Virginia Goto:

    Axis History Forum • View topic - Armaments of China and Siam to 1949 Part 1

  2. sniper1946

    sniper1946 Expert

    Jun 11, 2009
    Likes Received:
    very informative clint, I would not have liked to type all that out..ray..
  3. 107thcav

    107thcav Member

    Nov 2, 2009
    Likes Received:
    I agree with Ray your fingers must be sore. Thanks for all the info Clint I like the part about the Johnson rifle gives me hope one day more will be available on the market. Very informative.
  4. colletorww2

    colletorww2 Ace

    Nov 2, 2008
    Likes Received:
    I have this browning 1900 with Chinese markings, could it possibly be ww2?




    107thcav likes this.
  5. 107thcav

    107thcav Member

    Nov 2, 2009
    Likes Received:
    You have something pretty nice there collector. At first I thought it was a Russian pistol and then I read Browning 1900 and yes I believe this could of been used during the war. Here is a link for you on the pistol it says that this was copied quite a bit in Asia. Does it shoot?
    Modern Firearms - FN / Browning M.1900 (Browning No.1) pistol
  6. colletorww2

    colletorww2 Ace

    Nov 2, 2008
    Likes Received:
    No, but i wish it did :(
  7. 107thcav

    107thcav Member

    Nov 2, 2009
    Likes Received:
    Regardless pal, it is a nice pistol and you got my salute. :salute:
  8. brndirt1

    brndirt1 Saddle Tramp

    Jul 7, 2008
    Likes Received:
    You guys do know that was the model of pistol used by Prinzip when he shot the Archduke don't you? Not the Chinese version of course, but the Belgian FN 1900 Browning in (I believe) .32 caliber.
  9. 107thcav

    107thcav Member

    Nov 2, 2009
    Likes Received:
    No, Clint I did not. I never even knew what type of pistol was used. I had always thought it was a revolver. Thanks for the info.
  10. colletorww2

    colletorww2 Ace

    Nov 2, 2008
    Likes Received:
    Danke, I regret buying this, because I had a lot of other things to pay for, and got banned of a website :( And it is worth half the price i payed for it, but i think it is worth more to me now :D
  11. 107thcav

    107thcav Member

    Nov 2, 2009
    Likes Received:
    Sorry to hear that. It happens to a lot of us collectors a deal here and there just not enough money to go around when all is said and done. You live and you learn.
  12. Spaniard

    Spaniard New Member

    Feb 15, 2010
    Likes Received:
    Ok this is a heads-Up! KA's The Samurai Sword, is not the proper name.
    Not a Sword, as for who invented the Chines or Japanese it is still up for debate!

    It's classified as a Knife! Why ? because it only has one edge, a sword has two edges.
    Just thought you all like to know:D


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