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For the other Astronuts out there

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by Biak, Nov 2, 2011.

  1. Fred Wilson

    Fred Wilson "The" Rogue of Rogues

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  2. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    Australia launched via a French rocket one of the largest satelites yet yesterday...it's a communications sat for the NBN the National Broadband Network...meant to give rural Australia high speed broadband...it's cheaper than trying to connect everyone physically...it was a nice launch...
     
  3. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    Fascinating but scary.
    "A real-life Death Star is pulverising a planet in a system far, far away.
    Astronomers have discovered a large rocky object disintegrating as it spirals towards a distant white dwarf star while being ripped apart by gravity.
    White dwarfs are the hot remnants of sun-like stars at the end of their lives that have swollen up and discarded their outer layers.
    Lead scientist Andrew Vanderburg, from the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics, said: 'This is something no human has seen before. We're watching a solar system get destroyed.'
    The white dwarf acting out the role of the Death Star in the film Star Wars is about 570 light-years from Earth in the constellation Virgo.
    Using Nasa's Kepler space telescope, scientists spotted the doomed planetary object from the dip in brightness caused when an orbiting body crosses in front of a star.
    It was the first such object to be seen 'transiting' a white dwarf, they reported in the journal Nature.
    The data revealed a regular dip every 4.5 hours, which places the object in an orbit about 520,000 miles from the white dwarf.
    Evidence suggests the planetoid has about the same mass as Ceres, the largest body in the asteroid belt of our solar system.
    Combining all the data, they found signs of several additional chunks of material, all in orbits between 4.5 and 5 hours."
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3283183/We-watching-solar-destroyed-Nasa-spots-real-life-Death-Star-pulverising-planet-570-light-years-away.html#ixzz3pJ13inWI
     
  4. Poppy

    Poppy grasshopper

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  5. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    What a superb effort.
    "We have more complete maps of the surface of Mars than we do of some areas on Earth.
    In an effort to change this, scientists have created the most detailed view of the Earth's seafloor to date, revealing huge mountains and giant crevices beneath the ocean.
    The map was created by measuring the shape and gravity field of Earth, a relatively-new discipline known as geodesy. It provides gives an accurate picture of seafloor topography at a scale of 3.1 miles (5km) per pixel.
    Close to 70 per cent of our planet is covered by water, and that water refracts, absorbs, and reflects light so well that it can only penetrate a few tens to hundreds of meters.
    To humans and most satellite eyes, the deep ocean is opaque. But there are ways to visualise what the planet looks like beneath that watery shroud.
    Sonar-based instruments mounted on ships can distinguish the shape of the seafloor. But such maps can only be made for places where ships and sonar pass frequently.
    The majority of such measurements have been made along the major shipping routes of the world, interspersed with results from scientific expeditions over the past two centuries.
    About 5 to 15 per cent of the global ocean floor has been mapped in this way, depending on how you define 'mapped.'
    David Sandwell of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Walter Smith of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have spent much of the past 25 years negotiating with military agencies and satellite operators to allow them acquire or gain access to measurements of the Earth's gravity field and sea surface heights.
    The result of their collaborative efforts is a global data set that tells where the ridges and valleys are by showing where the planet's gravity field varies.
    The map above shows a global view of gravity anomalies, as measured and assembled by Sandwell, Smith, and his team.
    Shades of orange and red represent areas where seafloor gravity is stronger than the global average, a phenomenon that mostly coincides with the location of underwater ridges, seamounts, and the edges of Earth's tectonic plates.
    Shades of blue represent areas of lower gravity, corresponding largely with the deepest troughs in the ocean.
    The maps were created through computer analysis and modeling of new satellite data from the European Space Agency's CryoSat-2 and from the Nasa-CNES Jason-1, as well as older data from missions flown in the 1980s and 90s."
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3378097/The-accurate-ocean-floor-map-Scientists-reveal-strange-alien-landscape-beneath-sea-incredible-detail.html#ixzz3vlppkjsd
     
  6. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    Aye, we'll see.
    "Scientists say they finally have 'solid evidence' for Planet X, a true ninth planet on the fringes of our solar system.
    The gas giant is thought to be almost as big as Neptune and orbiting billions of miles beyond Neptune's path - distant enough to take 10,000 to 20,000 years to circle the sun.
    This Planet 9, as the two Caltech researchers call it, hasn't been spotted yet.
    They base their findings on mathematical and computer modeling, and anticipate its discovery via telescope within five years.
    The two reported on their research Wednesday in the Astronomical Journal because they want people to help them look for it.
    'We could have stayed quiet and quietly spent the next five years searching the skies ourselves and hoping to find it.
    'But I would rather somebody find it sooner, than me find it later,' astronomer Mike Brown told AP.
    'I want to see it. I want to see what it looks like. I want to understand where it is, and I think this will help.'
    Researchers inferred Planet X's presence from the peculiar clustering of six previously known objects that orbit beyond Neptune.
    They say there's only a 0.007% chance, or about one in 15,000, that the clustering could be a coincidence.
    Instead, they say, a planet with the mass of 10 Earths has shepherded the six objects into their strange elliptical orbits, tilted out of the plane of the solar system.
    During the solar system's infancy 4.5 billion years ago, they say, the giant planet was knocked out of the planet-forming region near the sun. "
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3408618/The-solar-new-planet-New-studies-claim-Neptune-sized-planet-dubbed-Planet-X-DOES-exist-Pluto.html#ixzz3xqVMX3FB
     
  7. Poppy

    Poppy grasshopper

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    Thanks for posting above, MrH, and all the interesting news you bring here.
    MrH keeps on ticking......
     
  8. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    Hmm...
    "A "violent, head-on collision" created Earth as we know it, ground-breaking new research has revealed.
    A planetary embryo called Theia, thought to be around the size of Mars or Earth, collided with Earth 4.5 billion years ago when our planet was just 100 million years old.
    It was already known that Theia and Earth collided, but the new evidence from the UCLA-led scientific team shows it was less of a side swipe, as previously thought, and more of a "head-on assault".
    The force of the impact resulted in early Earth and Theia, together to form a single planet, with a piece breaking off and entering its gravitational pull to form the moon.
    Researchers studied moon rocks from three Apollo missions and compared them with volcanic rocks found in Hawaii and Arizona.
    To their surprise, no difference was found in the oxygen isotopes and it was established that the rocks from each shared chemical signatures.
    Edward Young, lead author of the new study and a UCLA professor of geochemistry and cosmochemistry, said, “We don’t see any difference between the Earth’s and the moon’s oxygen isotopes; they’re indistinguishable.
    “Theia was thoroughly mixed into both the Earth and the moon, and evenly dispersed between them. This explains why we don’t see a different signature of Theia in the moon versus the Earth.”
    According to Professor Young, Theia was growing and would likely have become a planet, had it not been destroyed in the collision.
    The research, funded by Nasa, the Deep Carbon Observatory and a European Research Council advanced grant (ACCRETE) and published in the journal Science, also raised questions about Earths origins."
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/earth-made-up-of-two-planets-after-violent-collision-with-theia-45-billon-years-ago-ucla-scientists-a6846071.html
     
  9. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    4.5 billion years ago we were a molten planet...give some creadence.
    But this suggests absorption rather than destruction...if its based soley on oxygen isotopes then this could have happened in reverse, with the moon colliding and large pieces being drawn to Earth...
     
  10. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    To me a head on collision implies that they were moving in opposite directions. The energy involved in such a collision would do a lot more than just eject a Lunar mass or two. I would think it would also produce a much more elliptical orbit. Possibly it was a rear end collision with one body "catching up" with the other. I'm not sure "known" is the proper word in respect to this collision either.
     
  11. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    Good couple of nuggets.
    "Earth may have contained small concentrations of oxygen as early as 3.8 billion years ago, a new study claims.
    Currently, it is widely accepted that the oxygenation of the atmosphere took place in two major steps, the first dating back as far as 2.5 billion years ago.
    These new findings would push the initial oxygenation date back roughly one billion years, opening up the possibility of photosynthetic life forms during the Early Earth period.
    Earth may have contained small concentrations of oxygen as early as 3.8 billion years ago, a new study claims. According to the researchers, the elements require oxygen to be present in the BIF layers, indicating that Earth already contained low levels of atmospheric oxygen at this point
    It is largely agreed that the oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere began with the ‘Great Oxidation Event’ between 2.5 and 2.4 billion years ago.
    A second event during the Late Neoproterozoic Era from 750 to 540 million years ago continued this process, and some scientists believe this gave rise to the ‘Cambrian explosion,’ of 540-520 million years ago that birthed diverse animal groups.
    Now, a new study by an international team of researchers has analysed the oldest Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) on Earth – samples of marine sediments from Western Greenland – to determine that Early Earth was exposed to low atmospheric oxygen much earlier than has been believed.
    These formations are made up of marine chemical sediments, and have alternating layers of silica and Fe-hydroxides.
    This allowing researchers to examine the composition and presence of oxygenation and reduction processes in the ancient oceans and atmosphere."
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3450332/Oxygen-present-Earth-far-earlier-thought-Ancient-marine-sediments-reveal-presence-oxygen-3-8-billion-years-ago.html#ixzz40O7wFMjq


    "Roughly 550 million years ago, Earth’s magnetic fields rapidly flipped their orientations, swapping north and south to trigger the massive extinction that ended the Ediacaran Period, researchers have found.
    They claim the 'hyperactivity' of Earth’s magnetic fields may have led to the destruction of the ozone layer, and an influx of UV radiation.
    These rapid changes are thought to have led to the ‘Cambrian explosion,’ when soft-bodied creatures were replaced by hordes of new, complex animal species that could escape the light.
    Organisms of the Ediacaran Period were large, with soft-bodies.
    These organisms lived among thick mats of bacteria which lay on the sea floor that prevented oxygen from reaching the sea floor.
    The decline of this period is marked by the Kotlinian Crisis, during which many of these organisms became extinct.
    When the Cambrian explosion occurred 542 million years ago, hard-bodied, complex animals with sophisticated eyes emerged, breaking apart the bacterial mats when they burrowed.
    This made the sea-floor hospitable, according to Science, as oxygen could then extend to the area.
    Researchers have argued many possible causes for the Cambrian explosion, from the rise of atmospheric oxygen to the rise in carnivorous species.
    But, the new hypothesis by researchers from the US and Russia suggests the evolutionary changes may have stemmed from the reversals of Earth’s magnetic field.
    ‘Earth’s magnetic field underwent a period of hyperactive reversals,’ Joseph Meert, a geologist at the University of Florida in Gainesville explained to Science.
    RELATE."
    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3449945/Mass-extinction-550-million-years-ago-caused-Earth-s-magnetic-field-FLIPPING-new-study-claims.html#ixzz40O8PRKSB
     
  12. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    Don't know if anyone else has been following the Gravity wave discovery. The concept of it being caused by a collision of two Black Holes with a terminal velocity ~.5c is mind boggling.
     
  13. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    Yeah, saw that. Absolutely mind-boggling.
     
  14. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    yeah and a little difficult to believe...apparently two black holes which we still cant directly detect and hasn't actually been proven...crashed together a billion years ago and creates a "ping" on their instruments...and the theory is proven...these people have got it wrong in the past (a couple of times) - and im still dubious...
     
  15. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    It wouldn't be the first time that a spectacular claim turned out to be less than well substantiated.
     
  16. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist

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    I watched a programme the other night about the black hole in our galaxy, and how it was about to devour a gas cloud. However, I couldn't find out when the programme was made, despite the fact they kept referring to the event as "this summer", and that the cloud could be devoured "by 2013". Also can't find anything online, but probably just blind.
     
  17. Biak

    Biak Adjutant Patron  

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    I like the way all things are based on 'Modeling'. The thing about models is;

    * they are made by Humans (plenty of room for screwing it up)
    * are a speculative representation of the subject in question
    * always seem to fit the Modelers(?) idea of what they want to see


    Look for the age of the Universe to grow a few Billion years older once the Webb Space telescope is up there and taking 'pictures' after 2018.
     
  18. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    A wise man once said "No model is perfect. Some models are useful." By definition a model is a simplification of a natural process. If you iterate it through time you have a simulation, which depending on the granularity and how you do the iterations, may introduce even more divergence from reality (with a very small theoretical chance of decreasing the divergence). Still will be interesting to see how this plays out.

    I've seen models and simulations produce data that was not only not what was desired but that was completely unexpected. Such events are when they are at their most useful. I feel very uncomfortable when a simulation produces results that are too good.
     
  19. Poppy

    Poppy grasshopper

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    I dated a model once.
     
  20. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    Did not...
     

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