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For Those Interested in Archaeology

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by The_Historian, Jan 19, 2009.

  1. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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  2. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    There's been some discussion of that in recent years. Making an argument for some major shake up in the tree is a proven route to a dissertation.
     
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  3. lwd

    lwd Ace

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  4. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Yeah, scientists love a good squabble. However, if dinosaurs were reptiles then birds are reptiles.
     
  5. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    I think when it started looking like many of the dinos may have been warm blooded the reassessments started. Feathers pushed it a bit more. Of course not too long ago they removed algae from the plant kingdom altogether.
     
  6. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    I know they descended from reptiles, but that doesn't mean they kept enough traits to still be called reptiles. When I took Intro to Paleontology at Purdue the prof started off with why they weren't reptiles. (However, that lunatic also spent his "summers" in Antarctica looking for fossil dinos, so he may have been bat-shit.)
     
  7. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Oldest Neanderthal wooden tools found in Spain
    Date: April 3, 2018
    Source: CENIEH
    Summary: Archaeological excavations in Northern Spain have revealed several episodes of Neanderthal occupations with preserved wooden remains. The excavation revealed two very well preserved wooden tools; one of them is a 15 cm long digging stick.

    The detailed analysis of this tool and the Luminescence dating of the sediment that bares the wooden remains indicate that the objects were deposited around 90,000 years and thus, they were made by Neanderthals.​
     
  8. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron  

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    "Archaeologists in Sweden have uncovered startling evidence of a massacre more than 1500 years ago, when the inhabitants of a small village were struck down in their houses or as they fled along the street, and their bodies left to rot where they fell – with their treasures including beautiful jewellery and Roman gold coins.
    At Sandby Borg on the shore of Öland island, off the south-east coast of Sweden, there was no escape. In one house an old man was smashed on the skull so that he fell into the fire in the open hearth, where his body was charred to the bone. In another a teenage boy, possibly trying to flee, tripped over a body lying on the floor, and died where he fell.
    Such an aura of horror clung to the site that when archaeologists went in to uncover the gruesome facts, local people warned them they should keep well away from the green mound within the low stone wall.
    After three seasons of excavation, with less than a tenth of the site excavated, the team which publishes its findings today in the journal Antiquity, believes they have uncovered evidence of a catastrophic end to the life of the village – “a single event that made time stop – like a shipwreck but on land”.
    In the mid 5th century Sandby Borg had been a prosperous village built within the walls of a ring fort. After the attack nobody ever came back either to bury the dead, to loot their precious possessions or to take their valuable livestock. The dead – nine in just one house – rotted where they fell, lying in their houses until the roofs decayed and collapsed in on them, or sprawled in the village street, and their animals starved to death in their pens.
    Scattered among treasures including Roman gold coins, silver gilt jewellery, silver hair ornaments, intricate glass beads and cowrie shells from the Mediterranean, the archaeologists even found scraps of the last meals, including half a herring still lying by a hearth, and cooking pots where they were last set down until crushed by the collapsing roof.
    Ludwig Papmehl-Dufay, an archaeologist from the team at the local museum, which began excavations after warnings that the site was being targeted by treasure hunters, said that while no written or oral history of the massacre survived, there were persistent stories that it was regarded locally as a dangerous place. “I do find it most likely that the event was remembered and that it triggered strong taboos connected to the site, possibly brought on through oral history for centuries.”
    The archaeologists hope to return to the site this summer, but after three seasons of excavation have uncovered enough mysteries to keep them busy through several winters. Stuffed into the skull of one man they found four sheep's teeth. Papmehl-Dufay suggests that they may represent a final insult, the opposite to ancient beliefs of placing a coin or other small valuable with the dead to pay for passage to the afterworld, instead a contemptuous curse to prevent it. Nearby they found one bone from a tiny arm, the first evidence that children were not spared.
    Among all the covetable possessions found among the three houses excavated and the 26 bodies discovered, they found no weapons – they speculate that they may have been taken as trophies, and could still lie dumped as a ritual offering into a nearby bog."
    Swedish archaeologists uncover brutal 5th century massacre
     
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  9. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron  

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    More what they used to call "lurid" archaeology.
    "In the North Rhine-Westphalian town of Krefeld, a recent archaeological dig revealed thousands of ancient relics. These finds tell the story of the region’s turbulent Roman history.
    Tens of thousands of artefacts were dug out of sand and clay near the Rhine, archaeologists in Krefeld announced in April.
    A recent 10-month excavation along the Rhine revealed a wealth of previously-unseen Roman ruins, including hundreds of coins, weapons, horse skeletons, jewellery, helmets, and the artfully decorated belt buckle of a soldier. Packed in boxes, the relics span over 75 cubic metres.
    In the small town just outside Düsseldorf, nearly 6,500 graves were found dating from between 800 BC and 800 AD, which often contained valuable burial objects. It is one of the largest ancient cemeteries north of the Alps.
    "It took years before we could work through this," said archaeologist Jennifer Morscheiser proudly, who was a member of the team that discovered the Roman artefacts.
    These relics point to a part of Roman history that is tied with Germany’s Rhine-region, including a bloody uprising and subsequent Roman military presence.
    Halfway between the ancient towns of Neuss and Xanten on the Lower Rhine, the Romans established a military camp in what is now Krefeld around 69 AD.
    Directly on the border of the Roman Empire, the area was chosen due to its strategic location on a small hill across from an important trade route to Germania. The Romans called the place Gelduba: Today, this district of Krefeld is called Gellep.
    The famous historian Tacitus was the first to mention Gelduba, which was the scene of a massive battle between Romans and Batavians in 69 AD when Germanic Batavian prince Iulius Civilis started an uprising against the Romans in the Rhine-region.
    About 20,000 men - both Romans and Batavians - fought in Gelduba.
    The more than 300 horse skeletons recovered by archaeologists in recent digs likely stem from this massive battle, and are being kept in the Krefeld Museum Burg Linn as a witness to the annihilation.
    According to Krefeld archaeologist Hans-Peter Schletter, these relics of the battle are something special: "This is one of the very rare cases where archaeology and historical sources are in accord.”
    After the bloody slaughter, the Roman military built a military fort in the town and stayed until the beginning of the 5th century. During its time under Roman rule, Krefeld was often visited by auxiliary troops from Spain, who drank wine from their homeland and even built a heated swimming pool on the armoury's grounds.
    During the most recent excavation, 30 experts, students and helpers combed 37,000 square metres for over 10 months."
    Roman relics found in Rhine region show evidence of bloody uprising
     
  10. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron  

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    "The oldest human virus has been discovered in a 4,500-year old skeleton.
    Scientists say the extinct strain of hepatitis B – the potentially lethal liver disease that affects millions – has ‘transformed’ their understanding of the virus.
    British scientists said the ‘truly remarkable’ discovery was on a par with finding the first fossils.
    Previously the oldest detected human viruses dated back around 450 years.
    The hepatitis B virus has many mutations that no longer exist – and the information could help us prepare for dangerous new strains, scientists said.
    The discovery was made by carrying out DNA sampling on a Bronze Age skeleton in Osterhofen, Germany, as part of a wider study of 300 skeletons from central and western Eurasia, which are between 200 and 7,000 years old.
    The hepatitis B skeleton belonged to the ‘Bell Beaker’ culture, so called because of the bell-shaped pottery cups left behind."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5710373/Oldest-human-virus-discovered-Bronze-Age-bones.html#ixzz5F3jcRhi3
     
  11. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron  

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    Nearly 1,000 years older than we thought, apparently.
    "Researchers analysing two 3,800-year-old skeletons have found what could be the origin of the bubonic plague.
    DNA analysis shows the man and woman, buried together in a region of southwest Russia, were both infected with the same strain of bacteria when they died.
    The microbe is the earliest known example to have the characteristic features of bubonic plague, which killed at least 250 million people in Eurasia across a number of pandemics between the 5th and 19th centuries.
    Experts suggest the Russian bacterium is the ancestor to the strains which caused the Justinian Plague, Black Death, Great Plague of London, and 19th century plague epidemics in China.
    The researchers, from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, said the findings suggest the plague is far older than first thought.
    'Both individuals appear to have the same strain of Y. pestis,' said study coauthor Dr Kirsten Bos.
    'And this strain has all the genetic components we know of that are needed for the bubonic form of the disease.
    'So plague, with the transmission potential that we know today, has been around for much longer than we thought.'
    The bubonic plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), but despite its historical significance, the origin and age of the disease are not well understood.
    In particular, exactly when and where the bacterium evolved the capacity to transmit through fleas - part of what made it so deadly in medieval Europe - remains unclear."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5820513/Sientients-origins-bacterium-Black-Death-3-800-year-old-skeletons.html
     
  12. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron  

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    And something new from the Americas-
    "A team of researchers from the University of Oxford, Texas A&M University and Stafford Research LLC has found evidence bolstering the theory that the skeletal remains of an infant unearthed in Montana are those of the only known Clovis burial. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their testing methods and what they found.
    In 1968, construction workers came upon the remains of an infant skeleton. Those remains became known as Anzick-1 and were believed to represent a member of the Clovis people. The Clovis people are believed to have been the first widespread group of people living in North America. Prior research has suggested they lived approximately 13,000 to 12,600 years ago. Their name comes from the distinctive Clovis-style projectiles they created.
    In the years after Anzick-1 was found, teams of researchers studying the remains found mixed results when testing for age. Some showed the remains as very nearly the same age as nearby Clovis artifacts, while others found the remains to be thousands of years more recent. In this new effort, the researchers sought to settle the matter once and for all using new and improved dating techniques.
    The new techniques involved using pretreatments of collagen found in the remains to factor out decontamination and for extracting a single amino acid for radiocarbon dating. The researchers report that all of their tests showed that antlers found near the burial site and the skull of a second specimen (Anzick-2) were roughly the same age—which was approximately the same as prior testing had shown. But some of the testing showed the remains of Anzick-1 to be approximately 1000 years younger. Another test the team performed, though, called HYP extraction, showed the infant remains to be approximately the same age as the antlers and Anzick-2. The differing results from the other tests, the researchers suggest, were likely due to contamination issues. They contend that because HYP is the more precise measurement technique, their results show that Anzick-1 is approximately the same age as the other artifacts. And this, they claim, suggests that the debate about the age of the remains should be considered resolved."
    https://phys.org/news/2018-06-method-baby-anzick-age-clovis.html
     

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