Welcome to the WWII Forums! Log in or Sign up to interact with the community.

For Those Interested in Archaeology

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by The_Historian, Jan 19, 2009.

  1. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Jun 5, 2008
    Messages:
    9,319
    Likes Received:
    1,333
  2. lwd

    lwd Ace

    Joined:
    Jul 24, 2007
    Messages:
    11,725
    Likes Received:
    1,116
    Location:
    Michigan
    There's been some discussion of that in recent years. Making an argument for some major shake up in the tree is a proven route to a dissertation.
     
    CAC likes this.
  3. lwd

    lwd Ace

    Joined:
    Jul 24, 2007
    Messages:
    11,725
    Likes Received:
    1,116
    Location:
    Michigan
  4. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Jun 5, 2008
    Messages:
    9,319
    Likes Received:
    1,333
    Yeah, scientists love a good squabble. However, if dinosaurs were reptiles then birds are reptiles.
     
  5. lwd

    lwd Ace

    Joined:
    Jul 24, 2007
    Messages:
    11,725
    Likes Received:
    1,116
    Location:
    Michigan
    I think when it started looking like many of the dinos may have been warm blooded the reassessments started. Feathers pushed it a bit more. Of course not too long ago they removed algae from the plant kingdom altogether.
     
  6. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Jun 5, 2008
    Messages:
    9,319
    Likes Received:
    1,333
    I know they descended from reptiles, but that doesn't mean they kept enough traits to still be called reptiles. When I took Intro to Paleontology at Purdue the prof started off with why they weren't reptiles. (However, that lunatic also spent his "summers" in Antarctica looking for fossil dinos, so he may have been bat-shit.)
     
  7. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Jun 5, 2008
    Messages:
    9,319
    Likes Received:
    1,333
    Oldest Neanderthal wooden tools found in Spain
    Date: April 3, 2018
    Source: CENIEH
    Summary: Archaeological excavations in Northern Spain have revealed several episodes of Neanderthal occupations with preserved wooden remains. The excavation revealed two very well preserved wooden tools; one of them is a 15 cm long digging stick.

    The detailed analysis of this tool and the Luminescence dating of the sediment that bares the wooden remains indicate that the objects were deposited around 90,000 years and thus, they were made by Neanderthals.​
     
  8. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    "Archaeologists in Sweden have uncovered startling evidence of a massacre more than 1500 years ago, when the inhabitants of a small village were struck down in their houses or as they fled along the street, and their bodies left to rot where they fell – with their treasures including beautiful jewellery and Roman gold coins.
    At Sandby Borg on the shore of Öland island, off the south-east coast of Sweden, there was no escape. In one house an old man was smashed on the skull so that he fell into the fire in the open hearth, where his body was charred to the bone. In another a teenage boy, possibly trying to flee, tripped over a body lying on the floor, and died where he fell.
    Such an aura of horror clung to the site that when archaeologists went in to uncover the gruesome facts, local people warned them they should keep well away from the green mound within the low stone wall.
    After three seasons of excavation, with less than a tenth of the site excavated, the team which publishes its findings today in the journal Antiquity, believes they have uncovered evidence of a catastrophic end to the life of the village – “a single event that made time stop – like a shipwreck but on land”.
    In the mid 5th century Sandby Borg had been a prosperous village built within the walls of a ring fort. After the attack nobody ever came back either to bury the dead, to loot their precious possessions or to take their valuable livestock. The dead – nine in just one house – rotted where they fell, lying in their houses until the roofs decayed and collapsed in on them, or sprawled in the village street, and their animals starved to death in their pens.
    Scattered among treasures including Roman gold coins, silver gilt jewellery, silver hair ornaments, intricate glass beads and cowrie shells from the Mediterranean, the archaeologists even found scraps of the last meals, including half a herring still lying by a hearth, and cooking pots where they were last set down until crushed by the collapsing roof.
    Ludwig Papmehl-Dufay, an archaeologist from the team at the local museum, which began excavations after warnings that the site was being targeted by treasure hunters, said that while no written or oral history of the massacre survived, there were persistent stories that it was regarded locally as a dangerous place. “I do find it most likely that the event was remembered and that it triggered strong taboos connected to the site, possibly brought on through oral history for centuries.”
    The archaeologists hope to return to the site this summer, but after three seasons of excavation have uncovered enough mysteries to keep them busy through several winters. Stuffed into the skull of one man they found four sheep's teeth. Papmehl-Dufay suggests that they may represent a final insult, the opposite to ancient beliefs of placing a coin or other small valuable with the dead to pay for passage to the afterworld, instead a contemptuous curse to prevent it. Nearby they found one bone from a tiny arm, the first evidence that children were not spared.
    Among all the covetable possessions found among the three houses excavated and the 26 bodies discovered, they found no weapons – they speculate that they may have been taken as trophies, and could still lie dumped as a ritual offering into a nearby bog."
    Swedish archaeologists uncover brutal 5th century massacre
     
    CAC and lwd like this.
  9. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    More what they used to call "lurid" archaeology.
    "In the North Rhine-Westphalian town of Krefeld, a recent archaeological dig revealed thousands of ancient relics. These finds tell the story of the region’s turbulent Roman history.
    Tens of thousands of artefacts were dug out of sand and clay near the Rhine, archaeologists in Krefeld announced in April.
    A recent 10-month excavation along the Rhine revealed a wealth of previously-unseen Roman ruins, including hundreds of coins, weapons, horse skeletons, jewellery, helmets, and the artfully decorated belt buckle of a soldier. Packed in boxes, the relics span over 75 cubic metres.
    In the small town just outside Düsseldorf, nearly 6,500 graves were found dating from between 800 BC and 800 AD, which often contained valuable burial objects. It is one of the largest ancient cemeteries north of the Alps.
    "It took years before we could work through this," said archaeologist Jennifer Morscheiser proudly, who was a member of the team that discovered the Roman artefacts.
    These relics point to a part of Roman history that is tied with Germany’s Rhine-region, including a bloody uprising and subsequent Roman military presence.
    Halfway between the ancient towns of Neuss and Xanten on the Lower Rhine, the Romans established a military camp in what is now Krefeld around 69 AD.
    Directly on the border of the Roman Empire, the area was chosen due to its strategic location on a small hill across from an important trade route to Germania. The Romans called the place Gelduba: Today, this district of Krefeld is called Gellep.
    The famous historian Tacitus was the first to mention Gelduba, which was the scene of a massive battle between Romans and Batavians in 69 AD when Germanic Batavian prince Iulius Civilis started an uprising against the Romans in the Rhine-region.
    About 20,000 men - both Romans and Batavians - fought in Gelduba.
    The more than 300 horse skeletons recovered by archaeologists in recent digs likely stem from this massive battle, and are being kept in the Krefeld Museum Burg Linn as a witness to the annihilation.
    According to Krefeld archaeologist Hans-Peter Schletter, these relics of the battle are something special: "This is one of the very rare cases where archaeology and historical sources are in accord.”
    After the bloody slaughter, the Roman military built a military fort in the town and stayed until the beginning of the 5th century. During its time under Roman rule, Krefeld was often visited by auxiliary troops from Spain, who drank wine from their homeland and even built a heated swimming pool on the armoury's grounds.
    During the most recent excavation, 30 experts, students and helpers combed 37,000 square metres for over 10 months."
    Roman relics found in Rhine region show evidence of bloody uprising
     
  10. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    "The oldest human virus has been discovered in a 4,500-year old skeleton.
    Scientists say the extinct strain of hepatitis B – the potentially lethal liver disease that affects millions – has ‘transformed’ their understanding of the virus.
    British scientists said the ‘truly remarkable’ discovery was on a par with finding the first fossils.
    Previously the oldest detected human viruses dated back around 450 years.
    The hepatitis B virus has many mutations that no longer exist – and the information could help us prepare for dangerous new strains, scientists said.
    The discovery was made by carrying out DNA sampling on a Bronze Age skeleton in Osterhofen, Germany, as part of a wider study of 300 skeletons from central and western Eurasia, which are between 200 and 7,000 years old.
    The hepatitis B skeleton belonged to the ‘Bell Beaker’ culture, so called because of the bell-shaped pottery cups left behind."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5710373/Oldest-human-virus-discovered-Bronze-Age-bones.html#ixzz5F3jcRhi3
     
  11. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Nearly 1,000 years older than we thought, apparently.
    "Researchers analysing two 3,800-year-old skeletons have found what could be the origin of the bubonic plague.
    DNA analysis shows the man and woman, buried together in a region of southwest Russia, were both infected with the same strain of bacteria when they died.
    The microbe is the earliest known example to have the characteristic features of bubonic plague, which killed at least 250 million people in Eurasia across a number of pandemics between the 5th and 19th centuries.
    Experts suggest the Russian bacterium is the ancestor to the strains which caused the Justinian Plague, Black Death, Great Plague of London, and 19th century plague epidemics in China.
    The researchers, from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, said the findings suggest the plague is far older than first thought.
    'Both individuals appear to have the same strain of Y. pestis,' said study coauthor Dr Kirsten Bos.
    'And this strain has all the genetic components we know of that are needed for the bubonic form of the disease.
    'So plague, with the transmission potential that we know today, has been around for much longer than we thought.'
    The bubonic plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), but despite its historical significance, the origin and age of the disease are not well understood.
    In particular, exactly when and where the bacterium evolved the capacity to transmit through fleas - part of what made it so deadly in medieval Europe - remains unclear."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5820513/Sientients-origins-bacterium-Black-Death-3-800-year-old-skeletons.html
     
  12. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    And something new from the Americas-
    "A team of researchers from the University of Oxford, Texas A&M University and Stafford Research LLC has found evidence bolstering the theory that the skeletal remains of an infant unearthed in Montana are those of the only known Clovis burial. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their testing methods and what they found.
    In 1968, construction workers came upon the remains of an infant skeleton. Those remains became known as Anzick-1 and were believed to represent a member of the Clovis people. The Clovis people are believed to have been the first widespread group of people living in North America. Prior research has suggested they lived approximately 13,000 to 12,600 years ago. Their name comes from the distinctive Clovis-style projectiles they created.
    In the years after Anzick-1 was found, teams of researchers studying the remains found mixed results when testing for age. Some showed the remains as very nearly the same age as nearby Clovis artifacts, while others found the remains to be thousands of years more recent. In this new effort, the researchers sought to settle the matter once and for all using new and improved dating techniques.
    The new techniques involved using pretreatments of collagen found in the remains to factor out decontamination and for extracting a single amino acid for radiocarbon dating. The researchers report that all of their tests showed that antlers found near the burial site and the skull of a second specimen (Anzick-2) were roughly the same age—which was approximately the same as prior testing had shown. But some of the testing showed the remains of Anzick-1 to be approximately 1000 years younger. Another test the team performed, though, called HYP extraction, showed the infant remains to be approximately the same age as the antlers and Anzick-2. The differing results from the other tests, the researchers suggest, were likely due to contamination issues. They contend that because HYP is the more precise measurement technique, their results show that Anzick-1 is approximately the same age as the other artifacts. And this, they claim, suggests that the debate about the age of the remains should be considered resolved."
    https://phys.org/news/2018-06-method-baby-anzick-age-clovis.html
     
  13. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Been a while.
    "Archaeologists in Egypt have stumbled upon a new discovery dating back to more than 2,500 years ago near Egypt's famed pyramids at an ancient necropolis south of Cairo.
    The discovery which includes a mummification workshop and a shaft, used as a communal burial place, is located at the vast Saqqara necropolis part of the Memphis, a Unesco World Heritage Site.
    Memphis, the first capital of ancient Egypt, and its large necropolis are home to a wide range of temples and tombs as well as the three pyramids of Giza.
    The latest find, announced at a press conference, belongs to the Saite-Persian Period, from 664-404 BC. The site, which lies south of Unas pyramid, was last excavated more than 100 years ago, in 1900.
    Among the artefacts found were a gilded silver mummy mask, fragments of mummy cartonnages, canopic cylindrical jars and marl clay and faience cups.
    Many of them will be displayed in the under-construction Grand Egyptian Museum, the first phase of which is expected to be inaugurated later this year."
    Archaeologists in Egypt discover mummification worskshop
     
    OpanaPointer likes this.
  14. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Visited Newgrange a few years ago, amazing place. Echoes of the summer of '76 in this story.
    "Incredible aerial photographs of a 'new Stonehenge' have been snapped over Ireland as a summer heatwave reveals the foundations of ancient buildings across the British Isles.
    The never-before-seen monument is made up of a ring of prehistoric ditches now buried deep underground.
    It was spotted in County Meath close to a 5,000-year-old Neolithic tomb called Newgrange.
    Historic landmarks have been cropping up across the UK over the past few weeks as a recent bout of hot weather uncovers imprints on fields and lawns that mark the sites of various old and prehistoric features...
    ...The Irish henge was spotted by drone photographer Anthony Murphy, 44, who said he 'giggled with excitement' when he noticed the 'amazing detail' in his footage.
    The monument is 'entirely new' and includes 'extraordinary and unexpected' features, Dr Stephen Davis, an archaeologist at University College Dublin, told BBC News.
    Like Stonehenge in Wiltshire, the circular site features rings of pits or post holes around its edge and an entrance, as well as a central double-ditch ring with a causeway.
    There are currently no plans to dig on the site as it is positioned on a working farm."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5965875/New-Stonehenge-uncovered-Ireland-summer-heatwave-reveals-foundations-ancient-buildings.html
     
  15. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Could so easily have been missed.
    "Archaeologists on the Orkney island of Rousay have uncovered the preserved handprint of a Pictish metalsmith.
    They found the print on a stone anvil excavated from a substantial Iron Age settlement. It is believed to be at least 1,000 years old.
    The site's co-director told BBC Radio Orkney she believed the print was unique.
    Volunteers are racing to excavate the site, known as the Knowe of Sandro, before it is eroded away by the sea.
    At first, the archaeologists thought they were looking at one of their own handprints, left on the stone anvil as they lifted it from the Iron Age metal workshop.
    But closer analysis showed that the blackened imprints came from the hands and knees of the metalsmith himself.
    They believe he forged brass and other metals in his dark underground workshop at some time between the 6th and 9th centuries."
    Archaeologists find 'unique' handprint
     
  16. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    5,405
    Likes Received:
    718
    Not sure how a forge would be ‘dark’...
     
  17. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    It's saying the forge was underground and accessed by steps and a curved corridor. Not sure how that would work.
     
  18. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    5,405
    Likes Received:
    718
    Going by Asian forges...the fire is underground, along with tubes or straws as bellows, but the forging takes place at ground level...then poured either in a clay type tile, or a design made in the ground nearby...I would suppose something similar for tempering also...just a thought...
     
  19. The_Historian

    The_Historian Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    18,721
    Likes Received:
    2,033
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    That's what I would have thought too. Why build the bloody thing underground?
     
  20. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Jun 5, 2008
    Messages:
    9,319
    Likes Received:
    1,333
    Less loss of heat.
     

Share This Page