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For Those Interested in Archaeology

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by GRW, Jan 19, 2009.

  1. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Just noticed this thead has been going for a decade now. :cool:
    Anyway, here's the latest-
    "For tens of thousands of years, the high ceilings, flat earthen floor, and river view of Shanidar Cave have beckoned to ancient humans. The cave, in the Zagros Mountains of northern Iraq, once sheltered at least 10 Neanderthals, who were unearthed starting in the 1950s. One skeleton had so many injuries that he likely needed help to survive, and another had been dusted with pollen, suggesting someone had laid flowers at the burial. The rare discovery ushered in a new way of thinking about Neanderthals, who until then had often been considered brutes. “Although the body was archaic, the spirit was modern,” excavator Ralph Solecki wrote of Neanderthals, in Science, in 1975. But some scientists doubted the pollen was part of a flower offering, and others questioned whether Neanderthals even buried their dead.
    In 2014, researchers headed back to Shanidar to re-excavate, and found additional Neanderthal bones. Then, last fall, they unearthed another Neanderthal with a crushed but complete skull and upper thorax, plus both forearms and hands. From 25 to 28 January, scientists will gather at a workshop at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to discuss what the new finds suggest about Neanderthal views of death. Science caught up with archaeologist and team co-leader Christopher Hunt of Liverpool John Moores University in the United Kingdom to learn more."
    www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/01/new-remains-discovered-site-famous-neanderthal-flower-burial?fbclid=IwAR14oLmE2pV3qD8AFA5Q27hazrhGquJtldQjwlyV25WHFqsBitTFwyd3Jmg
     
  2. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    HULK SMASH!!!
     
  3. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Maybe a new angle on hunters?
    "Neanderthal spears were used to kill prey from up to 65 feet (20 metres) away, scientists have found.
    It was previously thought the ancient human ancestors did not have the necessary technology or skill to create refined weapons for long-range use.
    Research combined a fragment of a surviving spear with javelin throwing athletes and found the projectiles were more efficient than previously thought.
    Experts had assumed Neanderthals used their crude wooden spears for stabbing and lunging instead of throwing.
    The new study paints a very different picture of their abilities and reveals the so-called 'Schoningen' spears were aerodynamic missiles used to kill prehistoric prey.
    Using accurate replicas of Neanderthal spears dating back 300,000 years, the javelin throwers managed to hit a target up to 65 feet (20 metres) away.
    This was double the distance scientists had believed the 'Schoningen' spears could be thrown.
    In addition, the spears slammed into the target with sufficient force to kill prey.
    Lead researcher Dr Annemieke Milks, from University College London's Institute of Archaeology, said: 'This study is important because it adds to a growing body of evidence that Neanderthals were technologically savvy and had the ability to hunt big game through a variety of hunting strategies, not just risky close encounters.
    'It contributes to revised views of Neanderthals as our clever and capable cousins.' "
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6631271/Neanderthals-brains-build-long-distance-weapons.html
     
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  4. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    "An ancient footprint found preserved in a Gibraltar sand dune may have been left by one of the last living Neanderthals.
    Researchers investigating an area of the Catalan Bay Sand Dune over the last decade have found tracks from both animals and what appears to be a human ancestor dating as far back as 29,000 years ago.
    Neanderthals began to die out around 40,000 years ago, though some research has suggested they persisted until as recently as 28,000 years ago.
    The experts say the discovery lines up with late Neanderthal-era findings from the nearby Gorham's Cave, and if confirmed, would be only the second known example of Neanderthal footprints.
    In a paper published to the journal Quaternary Science Reviews, an international team including researchers from the Gibraltar National Museum have outlined the remarkable discovery of ancient vertebrate footprints in the region.
    The dunes above Catalan bay are a relic of the last glaciation, according to the team, revealing evidence of a time when sea levels sat 120 meters lower than they do today.
    At that time, the dunes extended much farther outward.
    Researchers identified footprints from red deer, ibex, aurochs, leopard, and straight-tusked elephants at the site.
    And, they found what’s said to be the footprint of a young human ancestor who stood just 3.4 to 4 feet tall (106-126 centimeters).
    The team dated the print to about 29,000 years ago.
    This information coupled with fossil discoveries from Gorham’s Cave point to a Neanderthal origin, according to the researchers.
    The only other Neanderthal footprints known to exist were found at Vartop Cave in Romania."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6701935/Where-Neanderthals-walked-Researchers-discover-29-000-year-old-footprint-Gibraltar.html
     
  5. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Sorry, but Neanderthals aren't extinct. They come to my family reunions every year.
     
  6. Carronade

    Carronade Ace Patron  

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    I wonder how the arm/upper body strength of Neanderthals compared to the modern athletes testing the spears? We tend to think of Neanderthals being muscular. That would affect range and killing power.
     
  7. lwd

    lwd Ace

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    Last I heard there was pretty conclusive evidence for "modern man" having some Neanderthal genes. So they didn't go completely extinct. Modern athletes have very scientific training which tends to build muscle at close to optimum rates. On the other hand primitive peoples usually got a lot of exercise as part of their life style. An interesting question as to how they'd compare.
     
  8. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    There's very little doubt that we have Neanderthal and Denisovan genes. All three groups would have looked enough alike for "exchanges" to have been very likely.
     
  9. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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    Every white person has roughly 2% - 2.5% Neanderthal DNA...that 2% sits in a different area for each person. Its thought that maybe the early Africans deliberately mated with the Neanderthal in Europe to ensure their offspring would survive...We may have got our coloured eyes from them...we may have got our straight hair from them...
    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Feb 14, 2019
  10. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Exactly, when every day's life or death you develop muscles without even knowing it. And that's without special diets/supplements etc. Not sure a modern reconstruction could ever be entirely accurate.
     
  11. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

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  12. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Still loving the muttaburrasaurus.

    One of the paleontology profs. at Purdue came to class one day with a t-shirt that read "I really dig dinosaurs."
     
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  13. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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  14. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    "The single biggest hoard of Celtic coins ever found is now thought to be two separate stashes that were buried together.
    The Le Câtillon II hoard includes 70,000 gold and silver coins and 11 gold torques, or necklaces, and dates to the First Century AD.
    Researchers believe that two distinct tribes created the currency, due to variations in the quality of their production as well as the metals used.
    The collection, thought to be worth £10million ($13million), was brought to the island and buried - most likely to hide it from Roman invaders, experts say.
    Metal detectorists Reg Mead and Richard Miles, who spent 30 years looking for the hoard, finally uncovered it in 2012.
    Their haul came out of the ground in one large piece and has been disassembled and restored over the past three years.
    Each items location has been recorded using laser-mapping and the preliminary data is revealing some unexpected results, researchers say.
    Speaking to MailOnline, Mr Miles said: 'What really surprised us was that everyone had thought this was just one large mass of continental coinage, what we were really surprised to find that it was in fact two distinctly different bodies of material.
    'We think that our coin hoard was brought to the Island at about the time of the Roman invasion, possibly for safekeeping away from the Roman armies.
    'One [collection] had all the early issued coins from circa 80 BC with all the gold jewellery. All of these coins can be identified with the tribes in Brittany.' www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6847107/A-trove-coins-jewellery-worth-10-MILLION-TWO-stashes-hidden-Romans.html
     
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  15. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    66-million-year-old deathbed linked to dinosaur-killing meteor
    Fossil site preserves animals killed within minutes of meteor impact
    Date: March 29, 2019
    Source: University of California - Berkeley
    Summary: Paleontologists have found a fossil site in North Dakota that contains animals and plants killed and buried within an hour of the meteor impact that killed the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. This is the richest K-T boundary site ever found, incorporating insects, fish, mammals, dinosaurs and plants living at the end of the Cretaceous, mixed with tektites and rock created and scattered by the impact. The find shows that dinosaurs survived until the impact.

    66-million-year-old deathbed linked to dinosaur-killing meteor: Fossil site preserves animals killed within minutes of meteor impact
     
  16. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Dog burial as common ritual in Neolithic populations of north-eastern Iberian Peninsula
    Date: February 14, 2019
    Source: University of Barcelona
    Summary: Coinciding with the Pit Grave culture (4200-3600 years before our era), coming from Southern Europe, the Neolithic communities of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula started a ceremonial activity related to the sacrifice and burial of dogs. The high amount of cases that are recorded in Catalonia suggests it was a general practice and it proves the tight relationship between humans and these animals, which, apart from being buried next to them, were fed a similar diet to humans'.

    Dog burial as common ritual in Neolithic populations of north-eastern Iberian Peninsula
     
  17. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    New explanation for Alexander the Great's death
    Date: January 22, 2019
    Source: University of Otago
    Summary: Did Alexander the Great meet his demise more than 2,300 years ago because of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)?

    New explanation for Alexander the Great's death
     
  18. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    The first known fossil of a Denisovan skull has been found in a Siberian cave
    DNA evidence hints that the hominids interbred with humans as recently as 15,000 years ago

    CLEVELAND — A palm-sized section of a braincase is the first Denisovan skull fossil ever found.

    Discovered in two pieces in Siberia’s Denisova Cave in August 2016, the find joins only a handful of fragmentary fossils from these mysterious, extinct hominids. Mitochondrial DNA, a type of genetic material typically inherited from the mother, extracted from the skull pegged it as Denisovan, paleoanthropologist Bence Viola said March 28 at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

    Viola’s presentation was one of several at the meeting that raised new questions about these Neandertal relatives — including how recently they existed — who are known only from previous discoveries in Denisova Cave. A decade ago, a tiny part of a finger bone yielded Denisovan DNA that proved crucial to identifying the Stone Age population. Sediment analyses indicate that Denisovans periodically inhabited Denisova Cave from around 300,000 to 50,000 years ago, with Neandertals reaching the cave after around 200,000 years ago (SN: 3/2/19, p. 11).

    But little else is known about Denisovans’ evolutionary history or identity. It’s long been unclear, for instance, if Denisovans belonged to a distinct Homo species. And most researchers say that the new evidence is still not enough to resolve that mystery.

    “We’re a long way from solving the species question about Denisovans,” said paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London, who gave a talk at the meeting on what’s known about the group.

    Continues.
     
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  19. OpanaPointer

    OpanaPointer I Point at Opana Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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  20. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    Sounds like a substantial settlement.
    "The remains of 3,000-year-old skeletons have been discovered while a water company worked to save a rare chalk stream in Oxfordshire.
    The skeletons are thought to date back to the Iron Age and Roman eras and have long been buried in the area before being unearthed by Thames Water.
    The company were working on a £14.5million project to ease pressure on Letcombe Brook near Wantage when they made the historic find.
    While laying new water pipes workers discovered an selection of historic artefacts which were all part of an ancient settlement in the area.
    During the excavation workers discovered 26 human skeletons, which are thought to have been involved in ritual burials as studies have previously suggested this is how Iron Age communities were laid to rest.
    A female skeleton was discovered among the ruins which had been buried with her feet cut off and her arms bound behind her head.
    As well as human remains, archaeologists also found evidence of dwellings, animal carcasses and household items including pottery, cutting implements and a decorative comb."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6921445/Water-company-uncovers-3-000-year-old-Iron-Age-Roman-SKELETONS.html
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2019
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