Welcome to the WWII Forums! Log in or Sign up to interact with the community.

For Those Interested in Archaeology

Discussion in 'Free Fire Zone' started by GRW, Jan 19, 2009.

  1. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    "People hunted with bows and arrows in a rainforest on a South Asian island starting around 48,000 years ago, a new study suggests.
    Small bone artifacts with sharpened tips unearthed in a Sri Lankan cave represent the earliest evidence of bow-and-arrow use outside Africa, says a team led by archaeologist Michelle Langley of Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia.
    Microscopic analyses of 130 of those bone points revealed surface cracks and other damage caused by high-speed impacts, likely because these artifacts were used as arrowheads, Langley and her colleagues conclude June 12 in Science Advances. Notches and wear at the bottom of the bone points indicate that they were attached to thin shafts. But the finds, from sediment in Fa-Hien Lena cave dating to between 48,000 and 34,000 years ago, are too short and heavy to have served as tips of blowgun darts, the investigators contend. Bow-and-arrow hunting at the Sri Lankan site likely focused on monkeys and smaller animals, such as squirrels, Langley says. Remains of these creatures were found in the same sediment as the bone points."
    www.sciencenews.org/article/clues-earliest-known-bow-arrow-hunting-outside-africa-found
     
  2. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    6,360
    Likes Received:
    1,018
    How do you go from no bow and arrow to having them? What is the evolution? Building a bow that works is far from accidental...
     
  3. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    I'd love to know too. Can find plenty of stuff on their history, but not their invention.
     
  4. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Not entirely sure why they're "surprised", to be honest.
    "Scientific research of ancient burials sheds a remarkable light on Ireland’s prehistoric society.
    An international team of archaeologists and geneticists led by Trinity College Dublin has shed fascinating new light on the society of Ireland’s first farmers in the Neolithic period (4,000BC–2,500BC). An article published today in the leading journal Nature, reveals the remarkable results of scientific analyses of human remains excavated from key National Monuments across the country.
    Among their stunning findings published this evening in Nature is the discovery that an adult male buried in the heart of the Newgrange passage tomb around 3,200BC may have been among a ruling social elite. Other ruling dynasties from the archaeological world include the Inca god-kings and Egyptian pharaohs, though the Irish Neolithic period is much earlier than those civilizations.
    Analysis of the skeletal remains of this adult male, which were retrieved during archaeological excavations led by Professor M. J. O‘Kelly at the UNESCO World Heritage Site in the 1960’s, marks him as the offspring of union between parents who were very closely related. Such unions are a near-universal taboo for biological and cultural reasons, though given his privileged burial within the chamber of the Newgrange monument, the researchers suggest his parentage was very likely to have been socially sanctioned.
    The Trinity College Dublin research group notes that socially sanctioned mating of this nature is very rare, and in global scientific studies has been documented almost exclusively among politico-religious elites—specifically within royal families that are headed by god-kings. In globally documented cases of this, such as in Hawaii, the Inca empire and in ancient Egypt, such behaviour is typically limited to ruling families whose perceived divinity exempts them from social convention. Researchers have generally viewed such close unions as a means of intensifying hierarchy and legitimizing power. The evidence from this study suggests a similar dynamic may have existed here in Ireland during the Neolithic period which heralded the introduction of farming and saw the construction of large megalithic burial and ritual monuments.
    The suggestion of such a ‘royal’ close family dynasty during the middle of the Neolithic period coincides with the building of the great passage tombs of Newgrange, Knowth and Dowth and echoes medieval folklore associated with the World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne. The 12th century Book of Leinster records the tale of a union between a sister and a brother which lent itself to the ancient name for Dowth.
    The team of scientists also revealed a web of distant familial relations between the man buried at Newgrange and other individuals buried at other Neolithic passage tombs across the country, namely the cemeteries of Carrowmore and Carrowkeel in Co. Sligo, and the tomb at Millin Bay in Co. Down.
    The genome survey led by Trinity College Dublin stretched over two millennia and unearthed other unexpected results. Within the oldest known burial structure on the island built around 3,800BC, Poulnabrone portal tomb in the Burren, the earliest yet diagnosed case of Down Syndrome was discovered in a male infant buried there. The remains were excavated by Dr Ann Lynch of the National Monuments Service in the 1980’s as part of urgent conservation work at the spectacular burial monument. Isotope analyses of this infant by TCD showed a dietary signature of breastfeeding. In combination with being afforded burial in the chamber, an honour afforded to very few, the researchers suggest this provides an indication of care and that visible difference was no barrier to prestige burial.
    Additionally, the genetic analyses showed that the monument builders were early farmers who migrated to Ireland and replaced the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who preceded them. The scientific evidence suggests that there was a swamping of the earlier population rather than any forced displacement or extermination.
    The findings are dramatic in the ever-dynamic retelling of our past. The results will hopefully lead to further research on other human remains which will help tell us even more of the people of ancient Ireland and their society. While we do already know much about the monuments they built, some of them our most prized National Monuments in State Care, we still know relatively little about those who built them. As scientific endeavour grows and ever more complex analytical possibilities develop, we have the potential to learn much more.
    Ireland’s National Monuments continue to yield up their amazing secrets, many years after archaeological excavations have taken place. Congratulations to Trinity College Dublin and the research partnership of Science Foundation Ireland, the Health Research Board and the Wellcome Trust, the Irish Research Council and to all those involved in this stunning piece of research. This peer-reviewed research of the highest quality will further help shape our understanding of the story of Ireland and we are very proud that our National Monuments and the archaeological work of the National Monuments Service have such an important role to play in telling this story.
    The research was funded by a Science Foundation Ireland/Health Research Board/Wellcome Trust Biomedical Research Partnership Investigator Award to Professor Dan Bradley and an earlier Irish Research Council Government of Ireland Scholarship to Dr Lara Cassidy of TCD."
    www.tcd.ie/news_events/articles/first-degree-incest-in-early-ireland-ancient-genomes-uncover-a-dynastic-elite-in-irish-passage-tomb-societies/?fbclid=IwAR2bAcgK0_4qQXJJXW8qZIXeh1xFjneNg4E2wpIzvVtOq2Eg2IPqg01zIsA
     
  5. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    My first thoughts were flint mines, like Grimes' Graves, but not if they form a circle.
    "A team of archaeologists have discovered a major new prehistoric monument just a short distance away from Stonehenge.
    Fieldwork and analysis have revealed evidence of 20 or more massive prehistoric shafts - more than 10 metres in diameter and five metres deep - forming a circle more than two kilometres in diameter around the Durrington Walls henge.
    Coring of the shafts suggest the features are Neolithic and excavated more than 4,500 years ago - around the time Durrington Walls was built.
    It is thought the shafts served as a boundary to a sacred area or precinct associated with the henge.
    Experts from the University of St Andrews were joined by counterparts from institutes including Birmingham, Warwick, the University of Wales Trinity Saint David and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (at the University of Glasgow).
    Dr Richard Bates, of the university's School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, said: 'Yet again, the use of a multidisciplinary effort with remote sensing and careful sampling is giving us an insight to the past that shows an even more complex society than we could ever imagine."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8445049/New-prehistoric-monument-dating-4-500-years-discovered-English-countryside.html
     
  6. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    They discovered over 200 new structures in total.
    'A drought in Wales has uncovered some fantastic Roman structures of yore. Two years ago, the United Kingdom had a summer that was uncharacteristically hot. The heat wave had some terrible effects, including drought, fires, and even roads starting to melt in Wales, becoming too sticky to allow traffic on them.
    That incredibly hot weather had another, more constructive side effect, however. It gave archaeologists in Wales the opportunity to discover hitherto unknown ancient structures, according to Smithsonian magazine.
    As the grass and vegetation withered in the hot, dry weather of that heat wave, certain fields started showing the clear outlines of lines and shapes that were different colors than the rest of the surrounding landscape. Those outlines were the remains of ancient structures that date from the Roman conquest of the British Isles, and clearly visible in aerial photographs...
    During that heat wave, he and his colleagues took over 5,700 pictures over the course of a little less than two months. He focused on the area of the Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire, the same area that the bluestone used to erect Stonehenge was quarried. That work identified around 200 new archaeological sites around Wales.
    Some of the most notable finds Driver and his colleagues found include several prehistoric barrows (graves) in a field in Nevern and what they believe is probably a Roman marching camp. A marching camp is a quick fortification that was dug in a day, by an army that was on the move. The presumed camp is located near Caerwent, and would be the second camp of this type discovered in the area. Driver believes the camp could be important because the Roman invaders campaigned in the area for a while before the nearby town became one of its most important settlements in Wales."
    www.thevintagenews.com/2020/06/25/drought-wales-roman/
     
    OpanaPointer likes this.
  7. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    "Two previously unknown Aboriginal sites have been discovered off the coast of Western Australia.
    Archaeologists found stone tools and evidence of human habitation off the Pilbara coast - the first Aboriginal sites to be discovered underwater.
    The ancient settlements were once on terra firma but became submerged as sea levels surged in the aftermath of the last ice age.
    Divers found the two underwater sites through a series of surveys in the Dampier Archipelago.
    The sites, at Cape Bruguieres and Flying Foam Passage, may provide insight into the Aboriginal way of life from when the seabed was dry land, researchers hope.
    Modern-day Aboriginals still consider these marine environments to be sacred and they are now known as 'Sea Country'.
    Chelsea Wiseman, who has been working on the project as part of PhD research at Flinders University, said: 'At one point there would have been dry land stretching out 160 km [100 miles] from the current shoreline."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8479739/First-Aboriginal-sites-discovered-underwater-Australia-date-8-500-years.html
     
    CAC likes this.
  8. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    "The remains of up to 500 people executed by guillotine in the French Revolution could be buried in the walls of a Paris monument, experts believe.
    Bone fragments were discovered in the walls of the Chapelle Expiatoire which is a classified monument in Paris.
    Archaeologist Philippe Charlier examined the monument's walls with a small camera inserted through the stones, The Guardian reported. He said there was earth mixed with bone fragments.
    The monument is dedicated to King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette who were executed at the Place de la Révolution before being formally buried at the Basilica of St Denis.
    French authorities called in an archeologist, who inserted a camera through the stones in the walls, so they didn't damage the building's foundations.
    The chapel's administrator Aymeric Peniguet de Stoutz had noticed anomalies in the walls between the columns of the lower chapel.
    Archeologist Charlier said the lower chapel had four ossuaries — chests or boxes — made of wooden boxes, which are filled with bones and were probably stretched out with leather.
    Peniguet de Stoutz has requested further research at the building.
    Founded in 1816, the Chapelle Expiatoire is a chapel in the 8th arrondissement of Paris near the Grand Boulevards on the site of the old Madeleine cemetery.
    The Madeleine cemetery was closed in 1794 when it reportedly run out of space.
    Historians believed the remains of 500 victims buried in the cemetery were eventually transferred to catacombs under the city."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8491399/Remains-500-people-executed-guillotine-buried-walls-listed-Paris-monument.html
     
  9. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    The oldest mines in the Americas.
    "Archaeologists in Mexico have found some of the oldest mines in the Americas and 13,000-year-old human remains, after exploring an underwater area in the Yucatan peninsula.
    In a paper published in the journal Science Advances on Friday, the scientists told of finding ocher mines in underwater caves.
    They had been intrigued by the 2007 discovery in the caves of a young woman they named Naia, who died 13,000 years ago, and wanted to know more about the circumstances of her death.
    Eight other sets of skeletal remains added to the mystery, with archaeologists wondering how they wound up in the then-dry caves.
    The caves, near the resort of Tulum, were flooded about 8,000 years ago due to rising sea levels.
    In Friday's research the scientists suggested they may have found an answer.
    They detailed the recent discovery of about 900 meters of ocher mines, with the remains of human-set fires, stacked mining debris, simple stone tools, navigational aids and digging sites.
    The evidence suggested humans went into the caves around 10,000 to 13,000 years ago, seeking iron-rich red ocher, which early peoples in the Americas prized for decoration and rituals.
    Such pigments were used in cave paintings, rock art, burials and other structures among early peoples around the globe."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8491677/Scientists-evidence-Americas-mines-skeletons-12-000-years-ago-underwater.html
     
  10. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    6,360
    Likes Received:
    1,018
    We are now finding Aboriginal remains...underwater...how much really old stuff is yet to be found due to it now being unserwater...given so many lived on the coast that is now underwater...what finds could be out there perhaps never to be found?
     
  11. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Always wondered that myself. Sea levels rose 300 feet-ish after the last Ice Age, and there have been a few finds of hunter-gatherer camps/fossilised forests off the British coast in the last 20 years. Fascinating subject.
     
  12. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Similar to Stirling a few months ago when they started laying new utilities.
    "HUMAN skeletons which date back 700 years have been unearthed when work was starting on Edinburgh’s tram expansion.
    Archaeologists have discovered ten bodies so far in medieval graves dating from 1300 and 1650 outside South Leith Parish Church, before work begins to expand trams to Newhaven.
    Previous investigations have shown that in the medieval period the church's graveyard extended across the road with graves surviving beneath the current road surface.
    After the bodies have been excavated the remains will be undergo examination and analysis that will reveal information on the origins, health, diseases and diet of the people of medieval Leith."
    www.thescottishsun.co.uk/news/scottish-news/5820042/human-skeletons-medieval-edinburgh-leith/?utm_medium=Social&utm_campaign=scottishsunfacebook&utm_source=Facebook#Echobox=1594934130
     
  13. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Bet it's the last time anyone mocks him for picking up loose change.
    "A man found a 1,800-year-old Roman coin on the ground in a park while out litter-picking with his girlfriend.
    Chris Lyon, 27, discovered the artefact from around AD 241 on July 5 at Carr Mill Dam in St Helens, Merseyside, while clearing rubbish with his girlfriend, Chelsea Marsden, 22.
    Initially mistaking the silver coin for a Euro, Chris pocketed it and returned home but, after cleaning the mystery object, he began to believe the eroding coin might be older than he had originally imagined.
    And after Chris, a contractor, shared his unusual find on Facebook, history enthusiasts quickly pointed out the coin, worth up to £45, appeared to depict Gordian III - a Roman emperor who ruled England from AD 238 to AD 244."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8540505/Man-lockdown-litter-pick-finds-2000-year-old-Roman-coin-initially-thought-euro.html
     
  14. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    And...it's that time of year again-
    "The early inhabitants of North America left behind precious few clues of their existence — a footprint here, a weapon and a mummy there — leading scientists to wonder exactly when the first people arrived on the continent.
    Now, two new studies report a stunningly early date: Humans may have been living on the continent at least 30,000 years ago.
    That would mean that the first North Americans may have arrived before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), between about 26,500 and 19,000 years ago, when ice sheets covered much of what is now the northern U.S. and Canada. However, humans didn't become widespread on the continent until about 14,700 years ago, when the population boomed.
    "These are fascinating studies," said William Harcourt-Smith, a paleoanthropologist at Lehman College and the American Museum of Natural History, both based in New York City, who wasn't involved with the research. "It's now very clear that modern humans were in the Americas far earlier than we used to think. There have been other sites and scholars suggesting this, but it is rigorous studies like this that really seals the deal."
    www.livescience.com/first-north-americans-30000-years-ago.html

    And less controversially-
    "Traces of butter dating back 2,500 years have been found at the bottom of a lake.
    Smears were preserved in a wooden dish discovered at the bottom of Loch Tay, Perth and Kinross.
    It is thought to have come from a lakeside settlement of least 17 crannogs, or Iron Age wooden houses.
    Built from alder with a lifespan of around 20 years, the structures simply collapsed into the loch once they had served their purpose, taking the objects inside with them."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8546969/Traces-butter-dating-2-500-years-wooden-dish-bottom-lake.html
     
  15. bronk7

    bronk7 Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    May 5, 2013
    Messages:
    4,123
    Likes Received:
    214
    Location:
    MIDWEST
    ....''time'' and no TV/inet/ballgames/etc....they had lots of time for that.....they had hundreds of years to develop it.....plus, free time without TV to watch, etc
    .....trial and error--this still happens today!! I've been working in engineering for over 30 years---and even with computers/programs specifically designed for engineering/etc--these college educated, '''smart'' engineers still get the most basic things wrong sometimes--to my great annoyance....
    ....they design something, I make it, they test it.....sometimes they have to redesign it 3 or 4 times before it works...
    ...sometimes, a part is out in the field for years, and then we find problems with it
    ..humans still make errors--are not perfect--in a lot of issues
    ...if their life'' depends'' on a bow, they will surely try to make it ''better'' .....

    ..I always call the engineers ''Smart Guys'''...I think James Cagney called the commissioned officers that in Mr Roberts
     
    Last edited: Jul 24, 2020
  16. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    6,360
    Likes Received:
    1,018
    I presume it had to do with necessity, the great mother of invention...missing too many easy targets with large, slow spears...not to mention losing them in the jungle once thrown...the idea , in my mind would have been sinew string between fingers first in front of a fire...and one shooting pebbles with it out of idle fun...it wouldn’t have taken much of a leap in thinking from there to upscale...still finding the right wood and fashioning it would have been trial and error...the first bow and arrows would have been quite small and designed to fire 30-40 feet on a high angle to bring down tree dwelling creatures...the evolution would have been from there...Interestingly I would say this is an example of divergence as I’m sure the idea was thought up elsewhere also...
     
  17. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Aye, nothing new under the Sun.
    "Although the coronavirus pandemic is still wreaking havoc on the world, scientists have found evidence that shows humanity was plagued by such an event thousands of years ago.
    Following an analysis of ancient teeth, experts found a deadly bacteria infected humans some 5,000 years – previous studies suggested it was only 3,000 years ago.
    The results come from a new strain of Yersinia pestis in DNA extracted from the ancient remains of a 20-year-old woman and it may be the world's first plague.
    The team believes this deadly bacteria played a key role in the Stone Age demographic transformation, which is known as the Neolithic decline - a dramatic collapse in population that occurred around 3,000 BC.
    The recent study suggests plague outbreaks go back much further than previously believed, but they have one this in common - the Yersinia pestis strain.
    This is the bacteria that causes plague and it was discovered in teeth dating back 5,000 years ago.
    Senior author Simon Rasmussen, a metagenomics researcher at the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen, said: 'Plague is maybe one of the deadliest bacteria that has ever existed for humans.'
    'And if you think of the word 'plague,' it can mean this infection by Y. pestis, but because of the trauma plague has caused in our history, it's also come to refer more generally to any epidemic.'
    Rasmussen and his team found a strain that has never been observed, which was extracted from the teeth of a 20-year-old woman who died 5,000 years ago in what is now Sweden.
    The Yersinia pestis had the same genes that make the pneumonic plague deadly today and traces of it were also found in another individual at the same grave site, which led experts to believe she died of the disease.
    Not only is this strain of the plague the oldest to ever be discovered, it is also the closest to the genetic origin of Y. pestis that likely emerged some 5,700 years ago – a time period when the Neolithic European settlements were collapsing.
    Mega-settlements began appearing around this time that brought anywhere from 10,000 to 20,000 people together and created a breeding ground for plague."
    www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8565539/Ancient-teeth-reveal-plague-infected-humans-5-000-years-ago.html

    And from bacteria to Primeval seaweed-

    "Scientists have discovered kelp off the coast of Scotland, Ireland and France that has survived since the last ice age, around 16,000 years ago.
    Experts from Heriot-Watt University's Orkney campus analysed the genetic composition of oarweed from 14 areas across the northern Atlantic ocean.
    The team found three distinct genetic clusters.
    It is hoped the discovery could help show how marine plant life survives extreme changes in climate.
    Dr Andrew Want collected samples from Kirkwall Bay, near his home.
    The marine ecologist said the "refugee populations" managed to hang on and survive "amid dramatic changes"."
    www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-north-east-orkney-shetland-53558308?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scotland&link_location=live-reporting-story
     
    Last edited: Jul 27, 2020
  18. CAC

    CAC Ace of Spades

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2010
    Messages:
    6,360
    Likes Received:
    1,018
    Same old problems from over population...These "mega-settlements" mark the beginning of man repressing his natural/animal urges to enable successful integration of large numbers...these repressions as I call them, are still being applied to us...The whole "misogyny" drive of the last 10 years, causing men to attenuate their natural behaviours even more...We have never done this before so no one can say what the end game here is and what effects it will have on humanity. But todays man aint the creature he was of the past...
    The diseases this unnatural lifestyle promotes (living in mega communities) are still with us and will continue to dominate our future...as our mega cities become even larger. I know everyone has their own opinion, but I have said for a number of decades that these mega cities are not natural and destroy almost everything to make them possible. The water is polluted and drawn from all other creatures, habitat is destroyed and the animals that rely on it along with them. So much food is needed the surrounding environment is further destroyed for crops...human waste is placed outside the city further eroding the quality of the surrounding environment...And today bored, average people want to kill for sport, 4 wheel drive through environments for nothing more important than fun...fish water ways out, pollute and destroy on "camping trips" - destroy any predators nearby (God forbid one single useless human die) - We are behaving like a cancer, indeed very much like a plague ourselves. Starting small and growing and growing, consuming all around it to nourish and further grow it. Mankind like most animals has some natural population controls...but these have proved ineffective when confronted with todays mega populations - killing thousands, tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands are no longer sufficient to make a difference.

    Population control is coming, but like most things human, we wont do whats needed until we have to...until things are no longer working for us...Some would like to see the whole world covered in concrete and steel, with humans and only humans alive on the planet...those who don't want this better start thinking of population control soon...
    I'm stepping down off the soap box now, relax.
     
    GRW likes this.
  19. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

    Joined:
    Oct 26, 2003
    Messages:
    19,526
    Likes Received:
    2,370
    Location:
    Stirling, Scotland
    Another great piece of detective work.
    "An Israeli archaeologist believes he has pinpointed the site of the Battle of Arsuf, where the Christian forces of the Third Crusade, led by Richard the Lionheart, defeated the Muslim army of Saladin in the 12th century and solidified their foothold in the Holy Land. For a time.
    This battle was known to have taken place near the ancient settlement of Apollonia, aka Arsuf, whose remains today lie on the Israeli coast just north of Tel Aviv. But there was debate among experts as to where exactly in the region the fighting took place and why the opposing generals decided to join battle precisely in this area.
    Now archaeologist Rafael Lewis has combined evidence from medieval sources with a meticulous reconstruction of the local landscape and environmental conditions at the time, and has zeroed in on an open field just northeast of the ruins of Arsuf.
    A brief archaeological survey has backed up the archaeologist’s identification of the battlefield by revealing artifacts from the Crusader period, including arrowheads and pieces of armor. The study, published earlier this month, also gives us clues as to why the English king and the Ayyubid sultan chose this specific spot for their showdown, says Lewis, a lecturer at Ashkelon Academic College and a researcher at the University of Haifa."
    www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-archaeologist-identifies-battlefield-where-crusaders-defeated-saladin-1.9030323
     

Share This Page