Dienstgradabzeichen fur Mannschaften: A system of arm rank chevrons- “Winkeln” -was first introduced in 1921; there were three major changes in design and rank titles to these arm chevrons between 1921 and 1945. These are shown in the chart Below. In the main these chevrons and stars were embroidered or stitched on to a backing cloth of dark blue-green material (Panzer troops used black cloth and for tropical wear a tan coloured backing cloth was used). However field-grey backing cloth was also used as well as the off-white denim material. In addition to this the O” 9cm wide rank chevrons were sometimes stitched directly on to the sleeve of the Field Service tunic without any backing cloth. Stars were square in shape or square with the four corners slightly protruding. These were usually embroidered on to a circular backing cloth. The chevrons were constructed from 0.9cm wide braiding dull grey or bright silver depending on the type of uniform they were worn on. The braiding and embroidered stars used by troops of the Deutsches Afrika Korps (D.A.K.) was coloured a dull gold or copper-brown, usually backed with lightweight tan material. All types, colours and “editions” of these arm rank chevrons and stars were worn on the upper left arm of the Uniform Tunic, the Service and Field Service tunics as well as the Greatcoat seen in these pictures. The "OberschiJtze" rank star, here being worn by an Oberkanonier. The rank chevrons for an Obergefreiter. The rank chevron for a Gefreiter. The rank chevrons for an Obergefreiter, of a slightly different design to the ones shown in the picture above. Fashioned in the same manner as the normal pattern of arm rank chevrons, these have the additional feature of a thin black thread line running along the length of each side of the chevrons.