The famous 14-part message that Japan thought would constitute a "declaration of war" and thereby avert the sneak-attack opprobrium (which they would have gotten in any case since the message doesn't even break off diplomatic relations), how was it sent? Short-wave directly to the IJ embassy's receiver? or by commercial telegram? I've always surmised Nomura had his own radio communications with Tokyo, but US ambassador Joseph Grew was dependent on commercial cable to communicate with Washington, in fact the Kempeitai often held up telegrams to the US embassy for up to a full day, either as harassment or in attempt to break the American code system. In any case embassies are usually established on a bi-lateral basis... if you get two acres for your grounds, I get two acres; if you get to have your own radio station, so do I, and so forth. Does anybody know the details? Here's another question. The "Purple" encryption system (formally the Type-B Cipher Machine) was built for the Japanese diplomatic service by the IJN Institute of Technology. It was a modified version of the IJN Type-97 cipher machine which used romaji (Japanese written in the Latin alphabet) rather than kana, phonetic Japanese using a simplified kanji script. Technically the two machines were very similar, but in practical use very different. I learned from readings from the U. S. Naval Cryptologic Veterans Association publication that code-key transmission of kana was very different from English in that there were more than twice as many dot-dash combinations as Morse code. Since the Purple system used the Latin alphabet I assume the dot-dash was standard Morse. Does anyone know details about how Purple traffic was transmitted, or why the difference between the Navy cipher machine (which they seldom used operationally) and the Japanese Foreign Ministry version? Finally I would love to talk about Japanese codes generally.