Most of us know the historical details in general about the ownership of that island territory. In brief: 1. Occupied by Portugese and Dutch privateers up to the 17th century 2. Qing Emperor occupies the island, taking control from the Europeans 3. Qing Emperor cedes the island to the Japanese after the Sino-Japanese war in the late 19th century 4. Allied forces take control of the island and award it to China after 1945 5. Republic of China forces retreat to the Island after the Communists take control of the mainland in 1949 The only blurry part to me is #4. The Cairo conference stated that all territories the Japanese took from other countries should be restored to those countries. So Manchuria and Pescadores were restored to China. Somehow Taiwan was tossed in. The Japanese claim (correctly) that Taiwan was not invaded. It was ceded to them in the 19th century. It's as Japanese as Okinawa or Kyushu. So it should not have been given to the Chinese. On the other hand men have followed a basic principle concerning defeated nations since time immemorial: The Loser Pays. China takes Taiwan as part of compensation for all the damages it has suffered under the Japanese. And China was an Allied nation at the time. So everyone thought the move was just. Therefore, disregarding #5, it seems Taiwan should fall under mainland rule. But then, that's basing it on historical events. There is a stronger basis for Taiwanese independence and that is the right to self-determination. Any geographical boundary or group of people have the right to ask for independence (the granting of which is of course not that easy --shut up California!) In my usual scan-fast style of reading I failed to see anything concrete about this in the original UN Charter (post-1946).