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Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA)

Discussion in 'Eastern Europe' started by JCFalkenbergIII, Mar 2, 2008.

  1. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    [SIZE=+1]Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA):[/SIZE] A fascist Ukrainian military and terrorist organization formed from Bandera's right-wing "revolutionary" faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN, it was known as UNO in Ukrainian). OUN itself was founded in 1929, as a terrorist organization to promote the cause of Ukrainian nationalism by any possible means, including: diversion, sabotage, terrorism, clandestine assassinations (in 1936 it assassinated Poland's Minister of Internal Affairs B. Pieracki), and cooperation with the German secret intelligence (both before and during the German aggressions on Poland and Soviet Union). The overwhelming majority of UPA's members also belonged to OUN, and both of these organizations were very strongly interconnected. UPA's main powerbase lay in the Ukrainian regions that until 1939 were still under Polish rule, with Ukrainian Catholics forming the bulk of the organization's members (a number of pro-Ukrainian Rusins from Trans-Carpathian Rus and eastern Polish Carpathians also joined UPA, in fact they were the formation's only non-Ukrainian members); attempts were made to recruit new members from among the Ukrainians of the Orthodox religious denomination in order to materialize an all-Ukrainian independence movement. Shortly before the outbrake of war in 1939, OUN established the clandestine Ukrainian Military Organization which served as a forerunner of UPA. Members of OUN launched numerous attacks on Polish soldiers and civilians in September of 1939, commiting their first gruesome atrocities in their bloody campaign to eradicate the Slavs from Ukraine.

    The abbreviation UPA itself stands for "Ukrainska Powstancza Armia" (literally meaning: Ukrainian Raising Army, however, usually translated as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army). It was a fiercely pro-German and anti-Communist armed formation of the OUN, whose leader was Stepan Bandera (1908-1959). UPA, as well as OUN, conducted its activities in support of Germany and against Poland and Soviet Union. Its chief aim was the establishment of an "independent Ukraine" under the protege of Nazi Germany. It mainly operated in north-western Ukraine and parts of south-eastern Poland. The first terrorist UPA detachment was formed on 14/10/1942, in the north-western Ukrainian region of Volhynia. The greatest organizational development of UPA (in headquarters, staffs, and detachments) took place in the second half of 1943, when numerous thousands of Ukrainian policemen voluntarily enlisted in its ranks. In September of 1943, the General Headquarters of UPA were founded in the vicinity of Lviv. The General Headquarters of UPA consisted of six sections (organizational-mobilizational, reconnaissance, economic, training, propaganda, and political-educational). R. Szuchewycz (alias "Taras Czuprynka") was nominated as UPA's Commander-in-Chief. Four operational groups were subordinated to UPA's General Headquarters near Lviv, and these were as follows: Operational Group "North" (encompassed north-western Ukrainian regions of Volhynia and Polesie), Operational Group "West" (encompassed north-western Ukrainian region of Galicia, as well as Trans-Carpathian Rus and south-eastern Poland), and still undergoing the development stage (in 1943), Operational Group "South" (encompassed southern Ukraine), and Operational Group "East" (encompassed north-central and eastern Ukraine). Every operational group was subdivided into military districts, which in turn were composed of tactical sectors. By early 1944, both Operational Group "North" and Operational Group "South" contained two military districts, whereas, Operational Group "West" was made up of six military districts (I have no data on the number of such military districts in the Operational Group "East"). Each operational group, military district, and tactical sector had its own commander and headquarters. All military districts also had their own NCO training schools.
    The fundamental combat unit of UPA was a kuren (each contained 400-800 members), which was made up of 3-4 sotnias (companies), each sotnia contained 3-4 czotas (platoons), each czota was assembled from 3 roys (each roy had 10-12 members). Every roy was usually equipped with one light machine gun, two to three automatic weapons, and at least seven rifles. Although a few small artillery and cavalry units were established, UPA predominantly consisted of second-rate (on German standards) infantry which served "security" (read mass murder) functions for the German administration / occupation apparatus. Those members of the OUN who did not join UPA, served as its auxiliary militia, called upon in times of need or emergency to support regular UPA detachments. UPA unquestionably served the German administration as loyal para-military levies that permanently tied their faith to that of Third Reich. Largely thanks to UPA/OUN, the General Governorship's District of Galicia was made into a Nazi-UPA condominium.
    Both UPA and OUN supported and participated in the creation of Ukrainian legions that were organized to fight against Soviet Union. The most famous such formation was the 14-th Waffen-SS Infantry Division "Galizien" ("Halyczyna" in Ukrainian, at the beginning it was known as the Galician Police Division), which contained numerous members of both OUN and UPA, and was co-founded by both organizations. See below for a list of other German-sponsored WWII Ukrainian formations.
    During the German occupation of Poland and western Soviet Union, UPA actively collaborated with the Germans, it fought against Polish and Soviet partisans, it launched a programme of extermination of Poles (killing an estimated 70 000 - 110 000 of them in the regions of Galicia, Volhynia, Polesie, and parts of south-eastern Poland). It was also hostile towards many non-Ukrainian Soviet citizens such as Slavs, Jews, and members of other races. Despite its claims, UPA never fought against the Germans or any other Axis. UPA's imaginery attacks on Germans never took place; after WWII UPA claimed to have conducted anti-German actions which never happened. On 29/02/1944 members of UPA ambushed and mortally wounded the Commander of the 1-st Ukrainian Front General Nikolay Vatutin (1901-1944), who died of wounds over two months later.

    Miscellaneous Axis Military Formations of WWII.
     
  2. Ukie

    Ukie recruit

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    Where would I be able to find more information on the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists? I have been doing web searches, but all of the information I have found seems to circular reference the same information. I am trying to find a specific person, was the OUN ever organized enough to maintain some sort of membership list?
     
  3. Skipper

    Skipper Kommodore

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    You can try stamp catalogs . The Ukrainians have edited many propaganda stamps in the 1920s their heroes are often depicted on local stamps. This will give you names, dates, places etc..
     
  4. Kozak

    Kozak recruit

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    Its amazing that such drivel is still showing up. The amount of disinformation and lies that are present in this post are amazing. The NKVD has taught you well. The stuff (I can not call it information or facts) here are so distorted that it is not worth anyones time to correct.

    If you are looking for information on UPA or OUN take whatever was stated here and believe the OPPOSITE.

    It is pure propaganda.
     
  5. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    Since this is a discussion forum how about enlightening us as to the "Truth". I posted the article for a subject to discuss. How abour pointing us to some sites where were read some additional info? And the NKVD? Sorry but I don't believe everything. Thats why I posted the article to get other peoples views.
     
  6. Slipdigit

    Slipdigit Good Ol' Boy Staff Member Patron   WW2|ORG Editor

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    I invite you to take the time to correct.

    This forum is for discussion and posts that do nothing more than provide sourceless complaints do not constitute discussion. You obviously have differing views from what was posted; you hardly strengthened your disagreement with your language and rebutting information.
     
  7. JeffinMNUSA

    JeffinMNUSA Member

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    Hmmm,
    So what was the UPA? An independant army of Ukrainian nationalists fighting both Fascist and Communist? Or a pro fascist organization? Rather difficult to make out at this remove-especially given the fact that the UPA was wiped out by NKVD troops in the years following the GPW and their history totally in the hands of the historians of the USSR-a somewhat less than objective school of scholarship. Another mystery of WWII.
    World War II -- 60 Years After: Mykola Lebed And The Ukrainian Partisan Army
    And there are many mysteries about just what happened during WWII with-and the effects of-the various Eastern European Nationalist movements that were in the end crushed by the Reds. For certain the dreams of independent homelands were not extinguished.
    http://hitlernews.cloudworth.com/guerrilla.php
    JeffinMNUSA
    PS. Interesting that some are claiming that Draza Mihailovic of the Yugoslav resistance SAVED RUSSIA.
    http://www.serbianunity.net/culture/history/Draza_Mihailovich/draza_russia.html
     
  8. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    Thanks for providing the site and info JeffinMNUSA. :)
     
  9. Sloniksp

    Sloniksp Ставка

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    Perhaps you could then educate the rest of us minions on the matter by providing actual facts which would contradict the information above?
     
  10. Za Rodinu

    Za Rodinu Aquila non capit muscas

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    Obviously the unwritten Rules of Engagement in this forum are not followed by everyone...
     
  11. Kozak

    Kozak recruit

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    I will write a response to this shortly - I have a large amount of work at present but will answer all of the points.
     
  12. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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  13. uffandr

    uffandr Dishonorably Discharged

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    And what about killings of Polish population on Volin while Nazi's occupation by Bandera's troops? Also amount of Ukrainians were killed for not supporting Nationalists (they were supported by Nazis as aliiinces against Russia whatever smb says. And they were supported by West).
    What about Bandera's instructions to do that massacre on Volin? What about official making by present Ukraininan authorities the National Hero from the Commander of Ukrainian SS battallion - Shuhevich? And no Mr. Bush comments.
    What would say all those who are honouring former SS warriors from Ukraine and Baltia if Russia will officially honour Mr. Stalin? He fought for Russia's freedom against invasion, nevertheless.
     
    Sloniksp likes this.
  14. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    Once again. Sources?
     
  15. Sloniksp

    Sloniksp Ставка

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    Hahaha a great observation! :clap:
     
  16. Soviet man

    Soviet man Member

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    Bandera and his forces were traitors which with fashists killed many piecefull citizens!
     
  17. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    Please back that statement up with some sources please?
     
  18. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    We are still waiting.
     
  19. JCFalkenbergIII

    JCFalkenbergIII Expert

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    :grumble: :rolleyes: I guess it was too much to ask.
     
  20. Soviet man

    Soviet man Member

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    I used translator to translate text, so excuse me for it! But I can't translate it myself!

    From russian's wikipedia :

    From the most first day of acts of war armed groups UPA, waiting the hour, developed active diversia-guerrilla war in direct rear defended Red Army. It is agree reports of bodies NKVD, in these days "communications destroyed in rear of soviet armies, prevented to evacuation of people and material assets subversive and terrorist gangs, enemy planes directed with light signals on tactical features, killed parties and soviet workers, representatives of law-enforcement agencies. Dressed up as in read army's form, UPA gangs attacked from rear on small detachments and staves of Red Army, fired them from attics of houses and beforehand equipped igneous points". Nationalists made ambushes on separate groups of soldiers, destroyed them, gaining myself weapon with hence. UPA's groups attacked on border post, lines cut communication, troop columns fired of ambushes, settlements grasped, keeping them to approach of leading columns of german army, or stormed them together with germans. In settlements, being farther from front line, nationalists distributed leaflets with calls to evade from mobilization and not to help to Red Army. With arrival of german armies local population actively helped with him in persecution of getting in environment of red army men.
     

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