Just finished reading Wm. Manchester's "The Last Lion, Winston Spencer Churchill, Alone 1932-1940". I've got to admit that Manchester makes a good case that Churchill's "Finest Hour" wasn't after becoming PM, but the years before when he stood, practically alone, warning of Hitler's menace, even when it damaged his political career so that he was never offered a position in the government until war was declared and the country literally demanded he be included. (Of course there were other choices that damaged his career such as supporting the British Raj in Parliment as well as Edward VIII's relationship with Wallace Simpson.) Manchester's documentaion of the fantastic record of appeasement by Baldwin and Chamberlain makes me astounded. We always hear of Munich, but the appeasement goes way back before that-and afterward too. Both of these PMs had the idea that all they had to do to secure world peace was to find out what Hitler wanted and then give it to him. They even tried to give him colonies that weren't theirs to give. It should be noted that both these Englishmen, along with much of the Tory party, were much more afraid of Communism than with Nazi-ism. In fact, Chamberlain wanted to cozy up with Hitler and abandon the alliance with France. Even when both the British people and many MPs were coming around to the idea that Churchill was right, Chamberlain was oblivious to it all and kept on appeasing Hitler right up to the time he was forced, kicking and screaming, by public opinion to declare war. To my way of thinking, Chamberlain and Baldwin's policies were ALMOST as responsible for WW2 as Hitler's. Since Chamberlain and his pre-war cabinet, refused to read, hear or believe anything that didn't correspond to his/their views, the actions of the most senior leaders of the country rose practically the level of a conspiracy. After Munich there was one last chance to stop Hitler short of war and that was when Stalin's envoy to Britain made it clear that they would support a mutual-security treaty with Britain, France and Poland. This would have surrounded Germany and quite easily led to Hitler being toppled by the Heer. Instead, Chamberlain and his close advisors stalled, citing Poland's refusal to allow Soviet troops cross their country. He dithered so Stalin decided to make a pact with his fellow-devil and the Soviet-German Non-aggression Pact was the result. I'd always read the Churchill had a good pipeline of information about Hitler and Germany. From what I've read here, he was probably the head of one of the best private intellegence services anywhere, anytime. His contacts were not only men in the British Government giving him intellegence and other documents he had no legal right to have, but also people all over Europe, including many in high positions in Germany that wanted Hitler stopped. He probably knew more about what was going on in Germany than MI6. Just as an aside, there were many superficial similarities between Hitler and Churchill: Both were extreme egotists, both needing to be the center of attention in any group. Both entertained their nightly dinner guests with what amounted to long monologs. Both were the supreme orators of their day in their respective countries. Both took immense interest in military affairs. Both wanted to be the head of state in their own country. Oh yes, and both are suspected of having low testosterone levels! Of course there was one slight difference; one was a respecter of laws and morality and one wasn't.