From as early as 1892 a threat from Japan had been in the minds of Australia's military planners. In 1911 Field Marshal Kitchener noted that it would be sound policy to provide fixed defences to protect the Port of Darwin, recommending two batteries of two 6-inch guns, on the east and west points of the harbour entrance. However, Kitchener's recommendations remained on hold. In 1919 Admiral Jellicoe was requested by the Australian Government to formulate a strategic plan for the defence of the Pacific. In part he recommended the establishment of a Far Eastern Fleet with its main base at Singapore, and Australian bases including Darwin. However, a 1923 conference saw the ‘Singapore Strategy’ born and with it the end of Darwin’s role as a major naval base. Instead it was to be a naval refuelling facility protected by four 6-inch guns. The construction of the Esplanade and Doctors Gully Oil Storage Tanks, Oil Storage Tunnels and a pump house on Darwin’s foreshore behind Stokes Hill Wharf, was commenced in 1926. In 1932 men of the Royal Australian Engineers and Royal Australian Artillery arrived in Darwin to construct fortifications and accommodation for a garrison and by early 1933 foundations at East Point Fortifications were completed and works at Dudley Point and Emery Point followed. By 1936, four 6-inch guns, two each at East Point and Emery Point, command posts, magazines and searchlights were completed. The 6-inch guns at East Point were to be replaced eventually by two 9.2-inch guns.