In August 1942, a third of Rommel’s supplies and almost half his fuel were lost in the Mediterranean, thanks to convoy attacks by Royal Air Force (RAF) medium bombers and Royal Navy submarines. The British well informed about his plan, Ultra intelligence disclosed it. The relentless efforts of the Royal Navy and the Allied air forces to cut off the supplies to the Axis forces in northwest Africa during 1942 and 1943 are recounted fully in "The War Against Rommel’s Supply Lines, 1942-1943", by Alan J. Levine. A historian specializing in World War II, Russian history and international relations, Levine explains how the success of the Allies’ interdiction campaign led to a relatively cheap triumph over a large enemy force. That success would have a major impact on subsequent campaigns in Europe.