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Military Archaeology

Discussion in 'Military History' started by GRW, Jan 4, 2004.

  1. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    Sunk during the Channel Dash, and now polluting the seabed.
    "Historic shipwrecks form an anthropogenic landmark in marine environment, yet their influence on the local geochemistry and microbiology remains largely unexplored. In this study, sediment and steel hull samples were taken around the V-1302 John Mahn, a World War II shipwreck, at increasing distance from the wreck, in different directions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s), explosives, and heavy metal levels were determined and related to the microbial composition. Benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene remain present at the mg kg-1 level, probably originating from the coal bunker. These PAH’s indicate that the wreck is still influencing the surrounding sediments however the effects are very dependent on which side of the wreck is being studied. Known PAH degrading taxa like Rhodobacteraceae and Chromatiaceae were more abundant in samples with high aromatic pollutant content. Moreover, sulphate reducing bacteria (such as Desulfobulbia), proven to be involved in steel corrosion, were found present in the biofilm. This study shows that even after 80 years, a historic shipwreck can still significantly steer the surrounding sediment chemistry and microbial ecology."
    www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2022.1017136/full
     
  2. Carronade

    Carronade Ace

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    There's more to it than that. The first Prussian troops, IV Corps under General von Bulow, approached Waterloo before the battle even started, and Napoleon had to dispatch his VI Corps, two cavalry divisions, and the Young Guard to protect his right flank. None of these troops were engaged against Wellington at any point in the battle. The Old and Middle Guard were held in reserve most of the day against the Prussian threat; this was why Napoleon was unable to accommodate Marshal Ney when he begged for reinforcements to clinch the assault against Wellington's lines.

    Late in the day, several Guard battalions took part in the famous final attack. By then the Prussian I and II Corps were arriving on the field, and when the French attack failed, their position became hopeless.

    Except for the brief intervention of the Guard, the battle against Wellington was fought by just seven of Napoleon's twenty infantry divisions. Ten divisions on June 18 were engaged only against the Prussians, seven of them under Grouchy against Blucher's III Corps at Wavre. One division, the 7th, was not in action at all, having suffered heavy casualties on June 16 fighting the Prussians at Ligny.

    Six of fourteen* French cavalry divisions were also employed against the Prussians, although the eight deployed against Wellington included the heavies and the Guard.

    * counting the Guard light and heavy cavalry as divisions, although they had only 3 and 2 regiments respectively; most French divisions had 4.
     
  3. GRW

    GRW Pillboxologist WW2|ORG Editor

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    Can't say I'd heard of these, but good that they're being preserved.
    "A network of First World War training trenches and two centuries-old shipwrecks are among 240 sites that have been added to the National Heritage List for England this year...
    ...The network of trenches found in Norfolk is also said to be rare in that many other examples have long been filled in.
    It was used by the Lovat Scouts, a regiment of the Scottish Highland Yeomanry, which began during the Boer War and fought in Gallipoli in 1915 and later in the Second World War.
    Commanded by Lord Lovat, uncle of SAS founder David Stirling, the Scouts pioneered the use of unconventional tactics and are credited with introducing the camouflaged sniper’s ghillie suit into the British Army.
    Its soldiers were drawn from among workers of the Scottish Highlands, and Stirling would go on to employ their pioneering tactics against the Nazis and Italians in North Africa."
    www.express.co.uk/news/history/1709528/WWI-training-trenches-national-heritage-list-for-england
     

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